Vigée Le Brun (VLB) master painting list, updated 1 September 2016

Please send questions, comments, additions, corrections, etc. to Charles Stein via webform. Unless otherwise cited, quotations of VLB are from The Memoirs of Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun, translated by Siân Evans, Camden Press, 1989 (following Charpentier’s 1869 edition, Paris).

Baillio (1982) refers to the exhibition catalog, Elisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun, 1755-1842, by Joseph Baillio, Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas, 1982. Baillio (2015) refers to the catalog for the exhibition held at the Louvre, while Baillio (2016) refers to the catalog for the exhibitions held at the the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art and Ottawa's National Gallery of Canada. Mr. Baillio is the world’s leading authority on Vigée Le Brun, and is preparing a catalogue raisonné. Biographical information on many of the sitterqs was also provided by Dr. François Velde (Heraldica Web Site), and Olivier Blanc (an author and specialist in French late 18th century and First Empire history, and author of numerous books, including, “Portraits de femmes, artistes et modèles à l'époque de Marie-Antoinette,” Paris, Didier Carpentier, 2006).

The hyperlinks generally connect to the group-effort website, "The Art of Elisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun," which is administered by Kevin Kelly. Many others have contributed to this research, for which we are grateful, whether your name is mentioned or not!

The original paintings by VLB and other artists mentioned herein are in the public domain, and case law in the United States holds that faithful reproductions of two-dimensional public domain works of art are themselves in the public domain. This includes a reproduction in a different medium, such as a photographic reproduction of an original painting, pastel, or drawing. See Bridgeman Art Library, Ltd. v. Corel Corp., 36 F. Supp. 2d 191 (S.D.N.Y. 1999); L. Batlin & Son, Inc. v. Snyder, 536 F.2d 486, 491 (2d Cir. 1975) (en banc).

Index to Anchors within This Page, by City and Year:
Paris: 1768-72 | 1773 | 1774 | 1775 | 1776 | 1777 | 1778 | 1779 | 1780
1781 | 1782 | 1783 | 1784 | 1785 | 1786 | 1787 | 1788 | 1789
Parma, Bologna, Turin and Florence: 1789 & 1792
Rome: 1789-90 and 1791-92
Naples: 1790-91
Venice: 1792
Vienna: 1792-95 (Paintings) | (Pastels)
St. Petersburg and Moscow: 1795-1801
Berlin: 1801
Dresden: 1801
Paris: 1801-03
London: 1803-05
Paris: 1805-42
Switzerland: 1807 & 1808
Miscellaneous Paintings Cited by VLB
Miscellaneous Entries
Paintings Determined Not to Be the Work of VLB
References

FROM 1768 TO 1772

{"1 My mother in Sultan costume, large pastel."} Jeanne Messin, born 27 September 1728 near Neufchateau in the Vosges, married Vigée then Le Sèvre, she died Paris 1801. [Biographical information from Olivier Blanc.]

ca. 1772 "Jeanne Vigée, the Artist’s Mother, seen from behind," pastel, oval, unlocated. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jan 1982, p. 16 (b&w) {"1 The same, back view."} [See related drawing, below.] [Attribution by Joseph Baillio.]

ca. 1772 "Standing Woman Holding a Sheet of Music (The Artist’s Mother?)," red chalk, 5 7/8" x 9 1/2," signed lower right: E. L. Vigée. Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Baillio (1982), p. 30 (b&w); L’Oeil, Jun/Jul 1983, p. 35. [The pose matches the head and shoulder position of the preceding pastel.] See the Baillio (1982) description. [Thanks to Angela Demutskiy for locating a color image.]

"Jeanne Vigée, the Artist's Mother," pastel. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800.

ca. 1772 "Believed to be the Artist’s Mother," black chalk heightened with red chalk, 8 1/2" x 6 1/4."

1769? "Etienne Vigée, the Artist’s Brother," oil on canvas, 24 1/4" x 19 7/8" (61.6 x 50.5 cm), signed and dated lower left: Mlle Vigée / 1773. St. Louis Art Museum. Baillio (1982), p. 31 (b&w); The Sweetness of Life (b&w); museum slide (color); Baillio (2015), p. 113 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 59 (color). Anonymous copy in National Trust, Polesden Lacey, Dorking, Surrey. Other copies exist, one attributed to Lépicié. Laurent Hugues, conservateur des musées de France alleges that the St. Louis Art Museum version is a later signature copy, and that the original is in a private Paris collection (which would explain VLB's listing of 1768-72, whereas the St. Louis painting is dated 1773). {"2 My brother as a schoolboy. One in oil, another in pastel."} [Per Baillio (1982), this portrait was probably completed in 1769, but not signed and dated until 1773. Baillio quotes from her handwritten draft: "At thirteen and a half I painted ...(my) third portrait ... after two of my brother." (Siân Evans’ translation reads "... at the age of fifteen and a half" - Letter I, Note 3.)] Louis Jean Baptiste Etienne Vigée, 1758-1820. See the Baillio (1982) description. /p>

1769? "Etienne Vigée, the Artist’s Brother," pastel, unlocated. {"2 My brother as a schoolboy. One in oil, another in pastel."}

ca. 1765 "Etienne Vigée, the Artist’s Brother," black chalk on laid paper, 8 1/4" x 5 1/8" (21 x 13 cm), private collection, signed bottom right: E. L. Vigée, and inscribed bottom left: mon frère. Baillio (2016), p. 58.

ca. 1772-73 "Etienne Vigée, the Artist’s Brother," black chalk on laid paper, 12 3/4" x 8 5/8" (32.5 x 21.8 cm), private collection, signed at bottom: dessin d'aprés mon frère / E. L. Vigée. Baillio (2015), p. 112; Baillio (2016), p. 60.

ca. 1772-73 “Young Draftsman (possibly Etienne Vigée),” oil on canvas, 16 1/2" x 22 7/8" (42 x 58 cm), private collection. VLB Souvenirs 1755 -1842, Texte établi, présenté et annoté par Geneviève Haroche-Bouzinac (2008 Éditions Champion, Paris) (black & white); Baillio (2016), p. 61 (color). [Thanks to Jana Talkenberg for originally sending this image to us.] At one time this work was attributed to Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin. Baillio attributes this painting to VLB, and suggests that the sitter may have been her brother.

ca. 1772-74 "Jacques François Le Sèvre, Artist’s Step-Father," oil on canvas, 23 5/8" x 19 1/2" (60 x 49.5 cm), private collection. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jan 1982, p. 17 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 15 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 65 (color). {"1 M. Le Sèvre in nightcap and dressing gown."} Lived 1724-1810, a jeweler. [Attribution by Joseph Baillio.] (Despite its listing in the 1768-72 section, Baillio (2016) thinks a 1774 date is more likely.)

{"3 Monsieur, Madame and Mademoiselle Bandelaire."}

“M Bandelaire,” pastel, Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). {"1 M. Bandelaire, a pastel, half length."}

{"1 M. Vandergust."} Olivier Blanc thinks Vandergucht may have been the correct spelling.

1772 "Mme Mouchy-Pigalle," oval, Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jan 1982, p. 18 (b&w). {"1 Mlle Pigale, the Queen’s milliner."} Elisabeth-Rosalie Pigalle was raised by her relative, the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Pigalle. In 1764 she married Louis-Philippe Mouchy (1734-1801). Their daughter would marry the engraver, Louis-Philibert Debucourt. (This listing is anachronistic: Marie Antoinette married the Dauphin in 1770, but she didn’t become Queen until her husband’s ascension to the throne in 1774.) [Attribution and biographical information by Joseph Baillio.]

{"1 Her assistant."}

ca. 1769 “Jeanne Vigée, the Artist’s Mother,” oil on canvas, oval, 25 5/8" x 21 1/4" (65 x 54 cm), private collection. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jan 1982, p. 16 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 111 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 63 (color). {"1 My mother in a white cloak; in oils."} {"This portrait is an oval bust which I painted from life at the age of fifteen and a half." - Letter I, note 3. [This quotation is from the Camden Press edition of Souvenirs. However, Baillio (1982) quotes VLB from her handwritten draft: "At thirteen and a half I painted the portrait of my mother wearing a white pelisse."]} [Attribution by Joseph Baillio. Sold by Christie's New York, 27 January 2000, Lot 68 for $134,500.] Baillio (2016) considers the skill displayed by the painting to be such that it must have been painted years later, 1774-78.

{"1 Mme Raffeneau."} Mme Raffeneau de Lille, wife of a big Parisian notaire, or else Françoise Sophie, born 1727, the wife of a Director des Aides régies par la ferme générale, femme de chambre de Mesdames Sophie et Louise de France. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 La Baronne d’Esthal"} Presumably the Baronne d’Estat, born Jeanne Louise Catherine Voidet, the daughter of Denis Simon Voidet, avocat au Parlement and Catherine Charlotte Vernier. In 1752 she married Joseph Dominique d’Estat de Bellecourt. After his death in 1766, she became the mistress of Omer Louis François Joly De Fleury (1743-1784). [Identified by Olivier Blanc]

ca. 1768-72 "The Children of the Baronne d’Esthat," oil on canvas, oval, 28 1/4" x 23 1/8," Cailleux Collection. L’Oeil, 244:68, Nov 1975 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 34 (b&w). {"2 Her two children."} Baillio dates the painting ca. 1772, and doesn’t identify the sitters. Olivier Blanc makes a good argument that the painting was done ca. 1768-69, and believes these to be the children of the baronne d’Estat, by the prosecutor Omer Louis François Joly De Fleury: Michel-Angélique d’Estat dit Bellecour, Baron d’Estat, born about 1762, and his sister Denise d’Estat born in 1764, future baronne Gothereau De Billens. Both died at the guillotine in 1794. Or the girl may have been another sister, Agathe Louise Marie de La Ferté, born circa January 1767, who apparently died as a child (she was also a daughter of Joly De Fleury, but was given a different last name on her baptismal records, to conceal her illegitimate birth). Agathe appears on VLB’s list for 1779.

{"1 Mme d’Aguesseau with her dog."} Gabrielle-Anne (elsewhere Pavant) de La Vieuville (1735-?), daughter of René-Jean-Baptiste, marquis de La Vieuville and Anne-Charlotte de Creil. In 1760 she became the third wife of Jean-Baptiste-Paulin dAguesseau de Fresnes, comte de Campans (1702-84). [Identified by François Velde, with additional information from Olivier Blanc.] VLB also painted her sister, Anne Geneviève, listed two paragraphs below.

1772? {"1 Mme Suzanne."} {"I met a friend of my mother’s, a Mme Suzanne..." - Letter III} Olivier Blanc suggests this might have been the mother of François-Marie Suzanne, a sculptor born in 1750.

{"1 Mme La Comtesse de la Vieuville."} Anne Geneviève de La Vieuville, second daughter of René-Jean-Baptiste de La Vieuville, baron d’Arzillières. She married her uncle, the count de La Vieuville. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.] VLB also painted her sister, Gabrielle-Anne, listed two paragraphs above.

{"1 M. Mousat."}

{"1 Mlle Mousat."}

{"1 Mlle Lespare."} Olivier Blanc suggests this was probably "Lespart", a member of the Gramont family.

1770 "Mme Denis de Foissy," oil on panel. {"2 Mme de Fossy and her son."} Mme Denis De Foissy, wife of Pierre De Foissy, receveur général des finances de Metz et d’Alsace. She became the mistress of Le Peletier de Mortefontaine. VLB lived on the same street as the sitter, whom she also painted in 1778. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

1774 "Vicomte de La Blache," oil on canvas, oval, 30 3/4" x 24 3/8" (78 x 62 cm), private collection. Beaumarchais; ou, La calomnie, by Frédéric Grendel (Paris, Flammarion [1973]); Baillio (2015), p. 116 (color). {"2 Vicomte and Vicomtesse de la Blache."} Jean Falcoz de La Blache (28 December 1743-1821), called the marquis d'Haraucourt, was the son of comte André Laurent Francois Falcoz de La Blache and Michèle Josèphe Marguerite de Roissy. On 3 March 1772, he married Catherine Le Roy de Senneville. The sitter's older brother, Alexandre Joseph Falcoz de La Blache (1739-1799), was known as the Comte de La Blache.

1774 "Vicomtesse de La Blache," oil on canvas, oval, 30 3/4" x 24 3/8" (78 x 62 cm), private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 117 (color). {"2 Vicomte and Vicomtesse de la Blache."} Born Catherine Le Roy de Senneville, on 3 March 1772 she married Jean Falcoz de La Blache.

{"1 Mlle Dorion."} Also listed for 1789. [Olivier Blanc suggests this sitter may have been a relative of Claude-Auguste-Nicolas Dorion, a poet opposed to the Revolution. He worked in the department for foreign affairs.]

{"1 M. Tranchart."}

1771? "Count Alexey Grigorievich Orlov-Chesmensky," 13 1/2" x 11," oil on canvas, oil. Starye Gody, v. 3, plate following p. 120, 1910. {"Several important figures from Russia came to see me; among others the notorious Count Orloff, one of the assassins of Peter III. He was an enormous man and I remember he wore a huge diamond on one finger." - Letter II.} [Per Nikolenko, in addition to this bust, there is a full-length version. Jana Talkenberg located a color image of a variant in which the sitter is wearing military insignia.] Count Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov-Chesmensky (Алексей Григорьевич Орлов) (5 October [O.S. 24 September] 1737 – 5 January [O.S. 24 December 1807] 1808) was a son of Governor Grigory Ivanovich Orlov (1685-1746) and Lusha Ivanovna Orlov, née Zinoviev (1710-?). In 1782, he married Evdokia Nikolayevna Lopukhina (1761-1786). He was an uncle (by marriage) to Countess Anna Ivanova Orlov, née Countess Saltykova (1777-1824), whom VLB would later paint in St. Petersburg.

1771? {"Soon the Duchess [de Chartres] sent for me to go and paint in her home." - Letter II} Louise Marie Adélaïde de Penthièvre, Duchess de Chartres (and later Duchess d’Orléans), 1753-1821. When her brother, the Prince de Lamballe, died in 1768, she became heiress to France’s greatest fortune. As a result she was married in 1769 to her cousin Louis Philippe Joseph d’Orléans (13 April 1747 – 6 November 1793), Duc de Chartres (1752), later Duc d’Orléans (1785), changed his name to Philippe Égalité (1792). Their eldest son, Louis Philippe (1773-1850) would reign as King of France from 1830-48. [Baillio doesn’t think this inclusion in Letter II is proof of a portrait at this time. He thinks the first portrait was done only in 1778, as listed by VLB.]

1771? "Comtesse de Brionne," unlocated. {"It was not very long before I received a visit from the great and beautiful Comtesse de Brionne and her daughter, the Princesse de Lorraine." - Letter II} Louise-Julie-Constance de Rohan, comtesse de Brionne (1734-1815). She became chanoinesse [sequestered in a convent] of Remiremont in 1742, at the age of 8! At the age of 14 she became the third wife of the widower Charles-Louis comte de Lorraine-Brionne (1725-1761). They had four children: Charles-Eugène de Lorraine-Brionne, prince of Lambesc and last duc d’Elbeut (1751-1825); Marie-Josèphe Thérèse de Lorraine-Brionne, princess of Elbeul (1753-1797) who in 1768 married Victor Emmanuel de Savoie-Carignano, duc de Carignano [VLB painted her circa 1783-85]; Anne Charlotte, princess of Lorraine-Brionne, later abbess of Remiremont (1755-1786); and Joseph Marie de Lorraine-Brionne, prince of Vaudémont (1759-1812). After the death of her husband, the sitter became a mistress of Choiseul, whom VLB painted in 1773. For comparison, here is a sculpture by Lemoyne. [Identified by Olivier Blanc]

1771? "Princess de Lorraine," unlocated. {"It was not very long before I received a visit from the great and beautiful Comtesse de Brionne and her daughter, the Princesse de Lorraine." - Letter II} Anne-Charlotte de Lorraine-Brionne, later abbess of Remiremont (1755-1786), the daughter of the previous sitter. [Identified by Olivier Blanc]

1770 "Charles Antoine Etienne de Choiseul-Beaupré" {"1 M. le Marquis de Choiseul."} {"You can easily imagine how several young men might try to ingratiate themselves by asking me to paint their portrait.... I painted them with ‘the lost look’; this requires the subject to sit with his gaze facing away from the painter. . ." [Footnote:] "At that time, the Marquis de Choiseul was one of these, which angered me because he had just married the prettiest person in the world. She was called mademoiselle Rabi; she was American, sixteen years old. I don't think we've ever seen anything more perfect." - Letter II} Charles Antoine Etienne de Choiseul-Beaupré, seigneur de Sommeville, called marquis de Choiseul-Beaupré, was born in Petite Anse, Saint Domingue (now Haiti) on 10 July 1739. He died on 13 April 1820. He was colonel à la suite du régiment Dauphin (étranger) en 1763, puis lieutenant général. His parents were Antoine-Nicolas de Choiseul-Beaupré (1716-1760) and Renée-Marie-Michelle Barbé de Beauval (1718-1802). The sitter was married twice. On 11 August 1770, in the parish of St. Eustace in Paris, he married Louise Raby, a daughter of Jean-Baptiste Raby & Marthe Bourgeois. Tragically, she died in Paris on 24 October 1772, with her age given as 17. He married again, on 16 March 1775 at St. Georges-sur-Loire, to Françoise Elizabeth Marie Joséphe Walsh (born at Serrant and baptized at St. Georges-sur-Loire 15th October 1758), with whom he had seven children. She died in 1793. Baillio (2016), p. 5 and 256 n.6 claims that an oil on canvas sold at Hôtel Drouot on November 17, 2004, which had been identified as a 1775 portrait by Greuze of Renaud César de Choiseul Praslin, is instead this VLB portrait of Charles Antoine Etienne de Choiseul-Beaupré.

"Comte de Jaucourt" {"1 Le Comte de Zanicourt."} Louis-Pierre de Jaucourt d’Espeuilles (1726-1813), son on Pierre Antoine II de Jaucourt d’Espeuilles, marquis de Naillac, and Marie de Vivans. The sitter was maréchal de camp et armées du roi, collaborateur à l’Encyclopédie de Diderot, chevalier de Saint-Louis. He married Sophie Gilly (died 1774), a cousin of Mme Pérrégaux. In 1777 he married again, to Elisabeth de Lachâtre. [Identification and photo provided by Olivier Blanc.]

"A lady," oil on canvas, 32 1/4" x 23 1/4". Photo from Witt Library. {"Also a large number of heads and copies from Raphael, van Dyck, Rembrandt, etc."} Angela Demutskiy believes this is a copy after Rembrandt.

1772? "Jeanne Baptiste Le Moyne, the Sculptor," oil on canvas, 14 11/16" x 17 5/16" (37.4 x 44.1 cm), Cleveland Museum of Art. Art in America, May 1966, p. 89, Museum website (color). {"Le Moine was an extremely down to earth person ..." - Letter III} Jeanne Baptiste Le Moyne, 1704-78. VLB’s portrait (an oil) is a copy of Quentin de La Tour’s pastel (published by Geneviève Monnier, "Pastels XVIIe et XVIIIe siècle", Paris, 1972, no. 76).

1772? "Jean Baptiste Antoine Le Moyne," pastel, private collection. {Not listed or mentioned by VLB}. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jan 1982, p. 19 (b&w); Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006); Dominique d'Arnoult, "Portraits au pastel par Jean-Baptiste Perronneau, peintre du Roi. au Nationalmuseum de Stockholm," Art Bulletin of Nationalmuseum de Stockholm 15 [2008], pp. 115-20. VLB listed the above painting of the sculptor. She did not list a portrait of either of his sons, though in the early 20th Century, this VLB pastel was identified as the older son, Jean Baptiste Antoine Le Moyne (1742-1781), conseiller du roi, lieutenant de l’amirauté à Port-au-Prince. In January 1982, Baillio suggested that the sitter was the younger son, Pierre Hippolyte Le Moyne (1748-1828). Jeffares and d'Arnoult are satisfied with the identification of the sitter as the older son. In 1772, Antoine would have been 30, and Pierre 23.

177? "Count Alexander Sergeevich Stroganov," unlocated. No reproduction known. {"...Count Stroganoff, a genuine art lover, whose portrait I had painted in Paris when I was very young." - Chap. XV} [For comparison, here is a portrait by Alexander Roslin.] Lived 1734-1811, President of the Academy of Arts in St. Petersburg.

"Boatman Pulling his Craft towards the Shore," pastel, 11.7” x 15.9”, not signed or dated. Sold at auction by Oger-Semont, 19 March 2007, lot 13, $9,921. [Baillio (1982), p. 39 states that VLB prepared a copy of a landscape by Joseph Vernet, sold in the 1778 sale of Mme de Cossé.]

???? "Women Drawing Water From a Well," pastel? [Baillio (1982), p. 39 states that VLB prepared a copy of a landscape by Joseph Vernet, sold in the 1778 sale of Mme de Cossé. Does he mean the Vernet original was sold then, or the VLB copy?]

ca. 1771 "Portrait of a Young Girl," pastel on blue paper, 15 3/8" x 11 3/8" (39 x 29 cm). Private collection. Pantheon, 10:235, Jul 1932; Die Kunst, 65:front, Aug 1932; Vigée Lebrun (2015), Parkstone Int'l, ISBN 9781785250729, p. 11 (color).

1773

{"2 M. and Mme de Roissy."} Joseph François Charles Michel De Roissy, seigneur de Dennemont-Follainville, born 3/8/1751 was colonel de cavalerie, Maréchal général des Logis et Armées du roi (1779) then Maréchal de camp (1786). In 1771, he married Marie Félix d'Aulnoy (see below). [Biographical information courtesy of Olivier Blanc.] See below 1773 "Young man" for additional information.

{"2 M. and Mme de Roissy."} {"It was at Le Moine’s house that I met Gerbier, the famous lawyer. His daughter, Mme de Roissy, was outstandingly pretty..." - Letter III} Marie Félix d'Aulnoy, daughter of Jean-Pierre Favre d'Aulnoy, trèsorier payeur près la cour des aides de Clermont-Ferrand, and Marie Perpétue Martin. After her father's death, her mother married Pierre Jean-Baptiste Gerbier De Massilaye De Franville, châtelain d'Aulnoy, avocat au Parlement et conseiller de Monsieur, king's brother. Mme de Roissy was "belle-fille" de Gerbier. In 1771, she married M. de Roissy (see above). [Biographical information courtesy of Olivier Blanc.] See below 1773 "Young woman" for additional information.

1773 “Young man,” pastel on paper, 19 5/8" x 19 1/4" (50 x 49 cm), signed and dated lower left: Melle Vigée 1773. Auction catalog for Sotheby's, Paris sale of 22 Jun 2010; Baillio (2015), p. 115 (color). In 2010, Sotheby's (based on Baillio's research) considered this pastel and the one below to be a matched pair based on their identical size and similar poses. VLB only listed one couple for 1773, and the woman's portrait (below) appeared similar to a terracotta bust of Mme de Roissy by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne II (1704 -1778). Thus, Sotheby's considered the pastels to represent M. and Mme. de Roissy. However, writing in Baillio (2015), Xavier Salmon considers the poses too irregular to represent portraits, and thinks they were instead studies. He also thinks the male sitter too young to be the 22 year old M. de Roissy. Salmon suggests that the sitter was instead VLB's brother, Etienne, finding similarities to the 1773 St. Louis Art Museum's portrait in oil of Etienne. Angela Demutskiy agrees with Salmon that the sitter is Etienne.

1773 “Young woman,” pastel on paper, 19 5/8" x 19 1/4" (50 x 49 cm), signed and dated lower right: Melle Vigée 1773. Auction catalog for Sotheby's, Paris sale of 22 Jun 2010; Baillio (2015), p. 114 (color). In 2010, Sotheby's (based on Baillio's research) considered this pastel and the one above to be a matched pair based on their identical size and similar poses. VLB only listed one couple for 1773, and this pastel appeared similar to a terracotta bust of Mme de Roissy by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne II (1704 -1778). Thus, Sotheby's considered the pastels to represent M. and Mme. de Roissy. However, writing in Baillio (2015), Xavier Salmon considers the poses too irregular to represent portraits, and thinks they were instead studies. He also thinks the male sitter (above) too young to be the 22 year old M. de Roissy. Salmon suggests that the high cheekbones and narrow chin remind him of the sitter in the ca. 1776 drawing of VLB's maid (listed in the 1776 section, below). He suggests that the young woman was in 1773 an employee of the artist's mother and stepfather, and thus a ready model. Angela Demutskiy disagrees, noting that the sitter is wearing a robe à la française of silk, which a maid from a wealthy employer might wear, but not the maid of a stingy employer such as M. le Sevre.

1775 “Alexandre Jean Baptiste Rouillé de Fontaine,” oil on canvas, 25 1/2" x 21" (64.6 x 53.5 cm). Private collection, Paris. Vigée Lebrun (2015), Parkstone Int'l, ISBN 9781785250729, p. 21 (color). {"1 M. de la Fontaine."} The sitter was general quartermaster of cavalry, seigneur de Goyencourt. He was the son of Michele Rouillé de Fontaine and Angelique Elizabeth Sezille. On 2 December 1772, he married Claude Sophie Caulet d’Hauteville (born 1753). Their son was Basile Gabriel Michel Rouillé de Fontaine, seigneur de Goyencourt.
 

1776 “Claude Sophie Rouillé de Fontaine,” oil on canvas, 25 1/2" x 21" (64.9 x 53.4 cm). Private collection, Paris. Vigée Lebrun (2015), Parkstone Int'l, ISBN 9781785250729, p. 23 (color). {Not listed or mentioned by VLB.} The sitter (1753- ), was the daughter of Pierre Nicolas Caulet d'Hauteville and Gabrielle des Paillet. On 2 December 1772, she married Alexander Jean Baptiste Rouillé de Fontaine. Their son was Basile Gabriel Michel Rouillé de Fontaine, seigneur de Goyencourt.

{"1 M. le Comte Dubarry."} Jean-Baptiste du Barry (1723-1794), later called comte de Cérès (nicknamed le Roués "the Rake"). (He was technically never comte du Barry, but only a chevalier, a lower rank, but called himself comte du Barry without authorization.) [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"5 M. le Comte de Geoffré."} Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Geoff Marquis de Chabrignac, born in 1739, was the son of Jacques-Claude Geoffre of Château-Sarrazin and Suzanne Lambert Valerian. Brigadier in the armies of the king, knight of the Royal and Military Order of St. Louis. In 1770, he married Agnès Thérèse Sémen de Brémond (1749-1832) [whose sister Marie-Louise was painted by VLB; see later this year]. The Marquis de Chabrignac died in America in 1781, leaving a son, Jacques (1772-1858). [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 M. le Maréchal Comte de Stainville."} Jacques de Choiseul-Stainville, comte de Stainville, maréchal de France (?-1789). He married Thérèse de Clermont-Revel, whom he later locked in a convent, after her affair with the comedian, Claival. The couple had two daughters: the first, called "Mlle. de Choiseul" in 1778 married her cousin Claude Antoine de Choiseul Labaume (1760-?) -- they wore the name Choiseul Stainville after their marriage, and had two sons; the second daughter, called "Mlle. de Stainville", married Prince Joseph de Monaco. The sitter’s older siblings were Étienne-François Choiseul, Comte de Stainville, 1719-85, prime minister of Louis XV, and Béatrice de Choiseul-Stanville, who became the duchess de Grammont. [Identified by Olivier Blanc]

1773 "Mme de Bonneuil," pastel, 22 7/8" x 18 1/2" (58 cm x 47 cm), signed and dated, Mlle Vigée / 1773. Photo located by Olivier Blanc. (Blue silk blouse, pink jasmine). {"3 Mme de Bonneuil."} {"...the prettiest woman in Paris..." - Letter III} Born Michelle Sentuary (March 1748) on Bourbon Island, now Reunion Island, East Africa. She married Jean-Cyrille Guesnon de Bonneuil in Bordeaux in January 1768. She was involved in espionage during the emigration. She died in Paris, December 1829. [Identified by Olivier Blanc, a biographer of Mme de Bonneuil and her family. Compare to the 1769 portrait by Roslin.] VLB also painted the sitter’s sister, Mme Thilorier in 1773 (and 1778?), and her daughter, Laure de Bonneuil in 1805. Olivier Blanc suggests that VLB may have also painted the sitter’s other sister, Mme Testart in 1773, misspelling her name as "Mme Tétare".

1773 "Mme de Bonneuil," oil on canvas, oval, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Caen. {"3 Mme de Bonneuil."} {"...the prettiest woman in Paris..." - Letter III} This painting was at one time called Mme de Guiche, and then Baillio suggested the sitter was the future Mdm Sanlot, a mistake which has been repeated by the museum. Olivier Blanc discovered that this painting was restored in the 1930s, with the face being overpainted as may be seen in this modern color photo. With the overpainting, the face looks exactly like that of Mdm Sanlot (see 1776). However, based on the pre-restoration black and white, Olivier has identified the sitter as Mme de Bonneuil. For comparison, see the 1769 portrait of Mme de Bonneuil by Roslin, and a sculpture of that sitter by LeMoyne.

{"1 Mme de Saint-Pays."} Perhaps Mme de Saint-Paër, who had been the mistress of Louis-Alexandre-Stanislas de Bourbon, Prince de Lamballe (died 1768). [Identified by Olivier Blanc]

{"1 Mme Paris"}

{"1 M. Perrin"}

{"2 Copy of [a portrait by another artist of] the Marquis de Vérac."} Charles Olivier De Saint-Georges, marquis de Véras, lieutenant général des Armées du Roi (1743-?). [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

ca. 1775 "Marie-Louise Sémen de Brémond," oil on canvas, 76 x 62cm. {"1 An American Lady."} Lived 1751-1825, daughter of Augustin Sémen de Brémond and Marie Thérèse Rousseau de Bellecour. They family were very rich, owning plantations in Saint-Domingo. The costume dates the painting to 1770-75, before her 1779 wedding. Her husband, Jacques II du Puy de Montbrun, Lord of Rochefort-en-Valsaín, was brigadier of cavalry, received the honors of the court, was a knight of Saint-Louis and a Knight of Malta. He died in Philadelphia (U.S.A.), in 1793. The attribution of the painting to VLB is by Laurent Hugues, conservateur of French museums, in his book, "L’enfant chéri", p.48. [Olivier Blanc suggests this sitter is the "American Lady," and provided additional biographical information.]

"Mme Thilorier"{"1 Mme Thilorié, half length."} Born Françoise-Augustine Sentuary in 1749 on Bourbon Island (now Reunion Island, East Africa). In 1769 she married Jacques Thilorier (1742-1783). In 1786, she remarried Jean-Jacques Duval d’ Eprémesnil. She was decapitated in Paris on June 17, 1794 (her husband had been guillotined in April 1794). [Here’s a 1769 pastel by Perroneau.] She was the sister of Mme de Bonneuil, who was painted by VLB earlier in 1773, and also a sister of Mme Testart, who may be the next name on VLB’s list. [Biographical information courtesy of Olivier Blanc, who published a study on the sitter in 1997, through the Paris publishing house of Perrin.] VLB also painted the sitter in 1778 and her husband in 1777; we have images for both of those paintings.

{"1 A copy of the same."}

{"1 Mme Tétare."} Olivier Blanc suggests this is a misspelling for Mme Testart, the sister of the previous sitter, Mme Thilorier, and also a sister to Mme de Bonneuil, listed earlier this year. Born Marie-Catherine Sentuary on Bourbon Island in 1747, she married in 1767 to Jean-Louis Testart (1744-1814). She died at a young age, in 1783.

{"1 Copy of [a portrait by another artist of] the Bishop of Beauvais."}

{"1 M. de Vismes."} Alphonse de Vismes de Saint-Alphonse, from Amiens, he would become fermier général in 1786. Son of an employee of the administration of the Farms, he was fond of music and painting. His sister, Adélaïde Suzanne de Vismes de Saint-Alphonse married Jean Benjamin de Laborde. She was a friend of Mme du Barry and Sophie Arnould. In 1780, the queen created for her the charge of "dame du lit" in Versailles. (A reference has also been found to a M. de Vismes du Valgay, director of the Opera. It is unclear if this is the same man, or his brother.) [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 M. Pernon."} Louis de Pernon , écuyer, conseiller du roy, Trésorier général, ancien des troupes de la Maison du Roy et de l’ordinaire des guerres, demeurant rue de la Chaussée d’Antin, died in 1795. (Probably the father of Laure Junot (1784-1838), duchesse d’Abrantès who was fournisseur des armées pendant la guerre d’Amérique.) [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mlle Dupetitoire."} Oil painting, approximately 50 x 100 cm. An engraving was reproduced in a 1937 book of Admiral Bergasse Dupetit Thouars Aristide Aubert. Mary Magdalene, Suzanne Aubert du Petit Thouars (1740-1823), chanoinesse du chapitre de Salles after 1784 or 1785. She never married. She lived in St Germain sur Vienne, but occasionally visited Paris with one of her brothers. [Identified by Emmanuel Brunet, Associate Professor of History and Geography, who is also Deputy Mayor of St Martin de la Place, responsible for cultural issues, who contacted Olivier Blanc with the information.] [We hope that the owner will give permission for Olivier to examine and photograph the painting.]

{"1 Mlle Baillot."}

1773 “Young Boy Playing with a Cup-and-Ball Game,” pastel, oval, 57.5 x 46.5 cm, signed and dated lower left. Oger & Camper (Paris) auction of 11 December 2009. [Thanks to Olivier Blanc for bringing this to our attention.] Angela Demutskiy wonders if this could be Little Roissy, who appears second on the list for 1774. VLB had painted a M. and Mme de Roissy in 1773.

ca. 1773 "Portrait of an Artist," oil on canvas, 21 7/8" x 18 1/8" (55.6 x 46 cm). Christie's Sale 11936 - Old Masters Part II (14 April 2016). The identity of the sitter is not yet known.

1774

1774 "? Abbé Giroux ?," unlocated, Gazette des Beaux Arts, Nov 1980, p. 158 (b&w). {"1 L’Abbé Giroux."} This painting had been mistakenly attributed to Nattier. Baillio attributed it to VLB, and suggested that the sitter was the Abbot Giroux. [Attribution by Joseph Baillio.]

{"1 Little Roissy."} Perhaps the son of M. and Mme de Roissy, whom appear at the top of VLB's list for 1773. Angela Demutskiy suggests that this could be the pastel of a young boy playing with a cup-and-ball game (which I showed at the end of the 1773 list, as the pastel is dated 1773).

{"1 Copy of [a portrait by another artist of] the Chancellor [d’Aguesseau]."} Henri-François Daguesseau, 1668-1751, one of the most distinguished magistrates of his time in France (essentially minister of Justice).

{"1 Copy of [a portrait by another artist of] M. de la Marche."} Either Douglas, comte de la March, who in 1778 would become Duke of Queensbury; or else the son of the Prince de Conti, who was called comte de La Marche. [Researched by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mme Damerval."}Aglé Chol de Clercy was born to Mme Chol de Clercy (née Charlotte Dupuy). While Charlotte was married to Claude Chol de Clercy, Grand Prévôt de la Maréchaussée de Lyon, she conducted an affair with the famous minister of Louis XV, Abbé Terray, and it was Terray who was the natural father of Aglé. When Aglé was 12 years old, she was married to an old count d'Amerval. After separating from the count, she lived in the apartment of his sister, Baroness de La Garde, in the hotel of Contrôle général des finances. (The Baroness was the new mistress of Terray.) In 1771, after a financial scandal, Count d'Amerval and his sister Baroness de La Garde were exiled to Lorraine, at which point the young Mme d'Amerval was sent to the convent of Port-Royal. In 1774, she became the mistress of Count de Langeac, whom VLB painted in 1775. Aglé became pregnant by Langeac. The sitter died in Passay. VLB also lists this sitter in 1776, though that work may simply be a copy of this one. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

"Le Comte de Brie," the painting is damaged and requires restoration. {"1 Le Comte de Brie."} Joseph-Etienne, comte de Brie-Serrant, married Marie Jeanne Bourgeois. [Identified by Olivier Blanc, who also provided the image.]

{"1 Mme Maingat."} Julie de Barry de La Roche du Rouzet (branche of the La Roche d’Auvergne), married Jean-Josselin Maingard des Chasteliers, chevalier de saint-Louis (1759-?). [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mme La Baronne de Lande."} Jeanne de Montal, wife of Jean de Lande de Linieres. VLB may have painted this sitter’s young granddaughter, Mlle Du Petit-Thouars, in the previous year. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mme Le Normand."} Marie-Anne Etiennette de Matha, born in Paris in 1737. She was received choriste à l'Académie royale de musique (l'Opéra) when she began an affair with Charles-Guillaume Le Normant d'Etioles, who was already married to Mme de Pompadour, the royal favourite. In 1763, Mlle. Matha bought a mansion at rue du Gros-Chenêt, n°34, in front of the house of Jean-Baptiste Le Brun (who would marry VLB in 1775). His house had entrances both on rue de Cléry and rue du Gros-Chenêt. After Mme de Pompadour's death in 1765, Mlle. Matha was able to marry her lover, and they lived in the mansion. In 1774, they asked their young neighbor, Mlle. Vigée, to paint a portrait of Mme Lenormant. The sitter died in 1809, some years after her husband. [Identification and information courtesy of Olivier Blanc.] The sitter also appears on the list for 1777. Helm's book describes one of the two paintings of this sitter as “Sitting, elbow resting on a cushion. Holding a pamphlet. Muslin dress, sash.”

{"1 Mme de la Grange."} Angélique Adélaïde de Meliand, daughter of Charles Blaise de Méliand, maître des requêtes puis conseiller d’Etat, and Marie Louise Adélaïde du Quesnoy. On 5 January 1766 she married François Joseph Le Lièvre, marquis de Fourilles et de La Grange, brigadier des Armées du roi et sous lieutenant de la compagnie des mousquetaires. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.] She appears again on VLB’s list in 1787.

{"1 M. Méraut."} M. Mérault de Boinville de Chateaufort de Villeron. (Reference Boysse, abonnés de l’Opéra). [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Vicomte de Boisjelin."} Gilles-Dominique de Boisgelin, chevalier, titré vicomte de Boisgelin De Kerdu, Colonel de Régiment de Béarn, Maréchal des Camps et Armées du Roi, married Marguerite Laurens De Peyrolles. He was guillotined in 1794. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 M. de Saint-Malo."} M. Renard de Saint-Malo. (Cf Palustre, notice généalogique sur les Renard de Saint-Malo, Correspondance historique et archéologique, VI, 1899, p.34-37.) [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 M. Desmarets."} M. Desmarets, comte de Maillebois, maréchal de France. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

"Comtesse d’Harcourt," oil, oval, signed lower right: Mlle Vigée. {"1 Mme La Comtesse d’Harcourt."} Anne-Catherine D’Harcourt Beuvron (1750-?), daughter of Anne-François d’Harcourt, marquis de Beuvron, and Marie-Catherine Rouillé. (She was called "Melle d’Harcourt" before her marriage). In 1767 she married her cousin, Charles, comte d’Harcourt D’Olonde (1743-?), Guidon des gendarmes d’Orléans. [Identified and photo provided by Olivier Blanc.]

{"2 Mlle de Saint-Brie and Mlle de Sence."} The second sitter was probably Antoinette Françoise Nicole de Sens, the daughter of a Procureur tiers référendaire au Parlement de Paris, who later married M. Amyot. [Suggested by Olivier Blanc.]

"Comtesse de Gontault-Biron," pastel, private collection. {"1 Mme la Comtesse de Gontault."} Françoise-Madeleine de Preissac, daughter of marquis d’Esclignac, married comte de Gontaut-Biron. [Identified by Olivier Blanc, who also provided the photograph.]

1774 "Marie-Louise-Adélaïde-Jacquette de Robien," oil on canvas, 36" x 28 3/4" (91.5 x 73 cm), signed and dated lower left: Mlle Vigée / 1774. Musée Cognacq-Jay, Paris. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jan 1982, p. 20 (b&w); museum postcard. {"1 Mlle Robin."} The daughter of Pierre Dumas de Robien and Adélaïde Jeanne Claudine Le Prestere de Châteaugiron. Born in Rennes in 1756, she married André Boniface Louis de Riquety, vicomte de Mirabeau, youngest brother of famous orator Honoré gabriel de Mirabeau. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 M. de Borelly."} Horace de Borély, son of Louis de Borély échevin de la ville de Marseille, born in 1734, married 1773 with Catherine de Saurian, died in 1804. They had one child a girl who married the marquis de Panisse. [Identified by Olivier Blanc]

"M. Duduit de Romanville." {"1 M. de Momanville."}Perhaps M. Duduit de Romainville (ca. 1725-?), chirurgien major du régiment des gardes françaises, et chirurgien consultant des armées du roi. [Suggested by Olivier Blanc]

{"2 The Rossignol sisters, Americans."} Marie Louise and Marie-Thérèse Rossignol de Vaudricourt, the daughters of Pierre antoine Rossignol de Vaudricourt, commissaire de la Marine (ca. 1730-?). Marie Louise died 13 July 1786. Marie-Thérèse married Bernard de La Marque, esquire, surgeon of the king. They had a daughter, Aglaé, born in 1777. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

1774 "Madame De Bellegarde," oil on canvas, 29 3/4" x 24 1/4," Antiques, 65:115, Feb 1954; Antiques, 70:15, Jul 1956. {"1 Mme. de Belgarde."}{"The first person to visit me there [in Meudon] was the Duchesse de Fleury, together with the Mmes de Bellegarde..." - Chap. XXVIII} Marie-Charlotte Adélaïde d’Hervilly (ca. 1753-1776), wife of count Robert Eugène Noyel de Bellegarde, 8th marquis des Marches, count d’Entremont en Savoie, co-seigneur de la Vallée de Bozel en Tarentaise. Their daughters were known for their beauty: Adélaïde Victoire (known as Adèle, born 1772) married her cousin Frédéric de Bellegarde, divorced, and became the sitter for David’s painting "The sabins"; Césarine Lucie (born 1774); and Françoise Aurore Eléonore de Bellegarde (born 1776). The sitter died in childbirth at the age of 23. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

1774? "Pierre Louis Dumesnil, Rector of the Académie de Saint Luc," unlocated ("now-lost" per Baillio (2016) at 6). {Not listed or mentioned by VLB} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1774 at the Académie de Saint Luc.] VLB’s admission piece to the Académie de Saint Luc. This was the name (until 1776) of the Parisian union of painters and sculptors, with well over a thousand members.

1774 "Allegory of Poetry," oil on canvas, 31 1/2" x 25 5/8" (80 x 65 cm), signed and dated lower left: Mlle Vigée / 1774, private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 131 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 67 (color). {Historical Paintings: "1 Poetry, Painting and Music."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1774 at the Académie de Saint Luc.] [Image initially provided to VLB website by Olivier Blanc.]

1774 "Allegory of Painting," oil on canvas, oval, signed: Mlle Vigée, Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jan 1982, p. 20 (b&w). {Historical Paintings: "1 Poetry, Painting and Music."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1774 at the Académie de Saint Luc.] [Attribution by Joseph Baillio.]

1774 "Allegory of Music," oil on canvas, oval, unlocated. {Historical Paintings: "1 Poetry, Painting and Music."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1774 at the Académie de Saint Luc.]

1774 "Robert-Jacques Benêt de Montcarville," oil on canvas, oval. Château Parentignat, Auvergne, France. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jan 1982, p. 18 (b&w); museum website (color). {Not listed or mentioned by VLB} Robert Benêt de Montcarville (1698-1771), issu de la noblesse de robe, le chevalier censeur pour le Roi, the chair of astronomy and mathematics at the Collège de France.

1774? "M.*** Playing a Lyre," unlocated. [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1774 at the Académie de Saint Luc.] 

1774? "Pierre Fournier, official of the Académie de Saint Luc," unlocated. {Not listed or mentioned by VLB} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1774 at the Académie de Saint Luc.]

1774? "M. Le Comte in His Study, with a globe and books." [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1774 at the Académie de Saint Luc.] Sold at the Hôtel Drouot, June 3, 2004.

1774? "Mlle xxx," bust-length, oval, pastel. [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1774 at the Académie de Saint Luc.]

1774? Several unidentified portraits and studies of heads. [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1774 at the Académie de Saint Luc.]

c. 1774-75 "La vertu irrésolué," oil on canvas, 20" x 15 3/8", Burlington, Dec 1985, p. iv (b&w); auctioned at Christie’s 23 May 2000 for $204,000.

1774 "Portrait of a Young Woman," oil on canvas, 33 1/4" x 27 1/8" (84.5 x 69 cm), signed and dated lower left. [Image from auction house, provided by Olivier Blanc.]

"Danaë, after Titian," oil on canvas, 39 3/4" x 24 3/8", (101 x 62 cm), private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 16 (color). Baillio notes that VLB's husband had one of Titian's paintings of Danaë, and believes that VLB may have copied the one sold at Hôtel Drouot on May 25, 2011.

ca. 1774 "Portrait of a Woman," pastel on paper, oval, 23 5/8" x 19 5/8" (60 x 50 cm), National Museum of Art of Romania, museum website. Thanks to Jana Talkenberg for spotting this pastel.

ca. 1774 "Portrait of a Woman," oil on canvas, oval, 25 3/8" x 20 7/8" (64.5 x 53 cm), Cognacq Jay website. The website says it was previously attributed to Drouais, but that Baillio says it is a VLB. The hairstyle, clothing, and pearl choker are very similar to those of Comtesse d'Harcourt, above.

1775

{"1 Mme de Monville with her child."} Timothy F. Boettger suggests this is Marguerite Charlotte de Bonnechose (?-1830). She married Thomas Boissel, écuyer, seigneur de Monville (1723, Darnétal - after 1785), conseiller-secrétaire du roi (1762-85). She had a son, Thomas Charles Gaston Boissel de Monville, baron de l'Empire (1763-1832), who would marry Anne-Simone Sautereau (1760-?), and a daughter, Thérèse Charlotte Boissel de Monville (?-1829), who married Michel Archange Duval du Manoir, comte de l'Empire, chamberlain of Napoleon I. 

{"1 Mme Denis"} {VLB mentions staying with "the wife of Denis, the landscape painter," in Rome, in 1789-90. - Chapter IV} VLB mentions two women named Denis in her Souvenirs, both in Rome. She mentions staying at apartments owned by the landscape painter, Denis. Olivier Blanc therefore suggests the sitter was Mme Denis de Saint-Robert, married to Jacques Robert Denis. VLB also mentions that after many months in Rome, she wanted to visit Naples, and was urged to be accompanied by M. Duvivier, the husband of Voltaire's niece, the widow of M. Denis. This was Marie Louise Mignot (8 February 1712, Paris - 20 August 1790, Paris), the daughter of Catherine Arouet (1686–1726) and her husband Pierre-François Mignot (d. 1737). In 1737, Voltaire provided her with a dowry that enabled her to marry army supply officer Nicolas Charles Denis (d. 1744). After the death of the sitter's husband, she became hostess and companion to her uncle, though they never married. In 1780, two years after Voltaire's death, she married again, to François Duvivier (1722-1802), commissaire des guerres. But VLB does not discuss anything about either lady, or say that she had painted either one 15 years earlier. 

1775 "Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov," oil on copper, 8 1/4" x 7 5/8" (21.1 x 19.4 cm), signed and dated lower left: Mlle Vigée 1775, Radishchev State Art Museum, Saratov. Baillio (2016), p. 197 (color). {"1 M. le Comte [sic] de Chouvaloff."} {"...Count [sic] Chouvaloff, the Grand Chamberlain; he was about sixty years old at the time [actually he was 48 in 1775] and had been the lover of the Empress Elisabeth II [sic] of Russia." - Letter II.} Ivan Ivanovitch Shuvalov (Иван Иванович Шувалов) ( 1 November 1727, Moscow - 14 November 1797, St. Petersburg) was a son of Ivan "Menshoi" Maksimovich Shuvalov (d. 1741, Moscow) and Tatiana Rodionovna-Khitrovo (d. 6 April 1756, Moscow). He was not a count, though his cousins Pyotr Ivanovich Shuvalov and Aleksandr Ivanovich Shuvalov were; they assisted Elisabeth I of Russia's ascent to the throne, and introduced Ivan to her. She became his last favorite, and as Minister of Education, founded Moscow University and the Russian Academy of Art. [The sitter of this painting was previously misidentified as Prince Alexandre Alexeewitch Viazemski.] VLB painted a number of the sitter's relative: (1) his niece, Countess Varvara Nikolaevna Golovina, née Princess Golitzyna (Варвара Николаевна Головина, урожденная княжна Голицына) (1766-1819); (2) his cousin, Countess Aleksandra Andreevna von Dietrichstein, née Countess Shuvalova, later Princess (8 December 1775 – 10 November 1847, Vienna); (3) his cousin, Princess Praskovya Andreevna Golitzyna, née Countess Shuvalova (Прасковья Андреевна Шувалова) (19 December 1767 – 11 December 1828, Paris); (4) his cousin, Count Pavel Andreyevich Shuvalov (Павел Андреевич Шувалов) (21 May 1776 - 1 December 1823); (5) his cousin, Countess Ivanova Orlov, née Countess Saltykova (1777-1824); (6) his cousin, Natalia Zakharovna Kolychёva, née Khitrovo (1774-1803); and (7) his cousin, Field Marshal Count Ivan Petrovich Saltykov (Иван Петрович Салтыков) (28 June 1730 – 14 November 1805).

"Comte de Langeac" {"1 M. le Comte de Langeas."} Auguste Louis Joseph Fidèle Armand. He was born in 1748. His mother, Madeleine de Cusac, first married M. Sabatini. She then married comte de Langeac de Lespinasse, by whose name Auguste was known, though he is actually the natural son of ministre La Vrillère, with whom Madeleine was having an affair. The sitter became colonel d’infanterie, chevalier de l’Ordre royal et militaire de Saint Louis, ancien capitaine des gardes de la porte de Monsieur, promoted maréchal de camp in 1791, émigrated after Varennes. He is known for his affair with countess de Neuilly. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mme Mongé."} Perhaps this is Marie Adélaïde Deschamps, wife of Louis Monge, later (1808) chevalier de l'Empire (1748-1827), professeur à l'école militaire de Metz and examinateur des aspirants de marine. There is another listing for Mme Monge in 1778, which could be the same sitter, or could be Marie Catherine Huart (?-1846) who in 1777 married Louis’s brother, Gaspard Monge (1746-1818), later (1808) comte Monge de Péluse et de l'Empire, who was ministre de la marine in 1792. (Suggested by Timothy F. Boettger.)

{"1 Mme Tabari."} The wife of Paul-René Tabary, esquire, owner of the beautiful Hôtel Tabary, rue du Faubourg Poissonnière n°36-38, which was designed by the famed architects Le Doux and Bélanger. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mme de Fougerait."} Olivier Blanc suggested that Mme de Fougeret was the sitter in "Portrait de femme a la rose dan les chevuex," oil on canvas, oval, 31.9” x 25.6”, auctioned by Cornette de Saint-Cyr, 10 December 1997, lot 96, $10,016, and attributed to Angelica Kauffmann. Olivier's suggestion was based on comparison to an engraving of Mme de Fougeret, done after the Terror, when she turned to charity work. Olivier also suggested that the painting could be by VLB's listed portrait of Mme de Fougerait, but others believe that the attribution of the painting to Kauffmann is more likely. Charlotte d’Outremont, daughter of a Conseiller au Grand Conseil, who in 1770 married Jean de Fougeret (guillotined 1794), receveur général des Finances du comté de Bourgogne. Owners of Chateau-Renard (Loiret) They had three daughters; one of them, comtesse Angélique de Maussion (1772-1851), wrote Rescapés de Thermidor.

{"1 Mme de Jumilhac."} Françoise Pourcheresse D’Estrabonne, wife of Pierre Marie de La Chapelle de Jumilhac, lieutenant général des Armées du Roi (1735-1798). They had a son who married Simplicie de Richelieu. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 La Marquise de Roncherol."} Marie-Louise Amelot de Chaillou (ca. 1734-?), wife of Claude-Thomas de Roncherolles, first baron of Normandy, Lieutenant général.. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Le Prince de Rochefort."} {"The supper parties at the Princesse de Rohan-Rochefort’s house were delightful." - Letter III} Charles-Louis-Gaspard (1765-1843), son of Charles-Armand, Prince de Rohan-Rochefort (1729-1811).

Mlle. De Rochefort, as Diane,” VLB Souvenirs 1755 -1842, Texte établi, présenté et annoté par Geneviève Haroche-Bouzinac (2008 Éditions Champion, Paris). {"1 Mlle de Rochefort."} {"The supper parties at the Princesse de Rohan-Rochefort’s house were delightful." - Letter III} [Thanks to Jana Talkenberg for sending this image to us.] Charlotte-Louise-Dorothée (1767-1842), daughter of Charles-Armand, Prince de Rohan-Rochefort (1729-1811).

1775 "Pierre Louis Eveillard de Livois," pastel, Private Collection. L’Oeil, Jun 1993, p. 23 (b&w); Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). {"1 M. de Livoy."} Pierre-Louis Eveillard, marquis de Livois (1736–1790), mécène et collectionneur.

{"1 Mme de Ronsy."} Mme de Roissy, daughter of fermier général M. de Verdun

{"1 M. de Monville."} If related to the listing earlier this year, "Mme. de Monville with her child," then the sitter may have been Thomas Boissel, écuyer, seigneur de Monville (1723, Darnétal - after 1785), conseiller-secrétaire du roi (1762-85). Another possibility appears in her in her memoirs:{"I often saw M. de Monville there, a pleasant, elegant man, who took us to see a part of the countryside known as ‘Le Desert’ and a house which was no more than a tower." - Letter X} The M. de Monville mentioned in Letter X is certainly François Nicolas Henri, Racine de Monville (4 October 1734-9 March 1797), French aristocrat, musician, architect and landscape designer, best known for his French landscape garden, Le Désert de Retz, which influenced Thomas Jefferson and other later architects. Letter X takes place around 1782, when the column house at Désert de Retz was completed. The earlier listing for "Mme. de Monville with her child" could not be related to Racine de Monville, though, as he had no known progeny, and as his wife, Aimable Charlotte Félicité Lucas de Boncourt, had died in 1761.

{"1 Mlle de Cossé."} Adélaïde Pauline Rosalie de Cosse Brissac, the daughter of Louis Hercule Timoléon, duc de Cossé and Adélaide Dianne Délie Mancini, daughter of duke de Nivernois. In 1782 the sitter married Victurnien Jean Baptiste De Rochechouart, duc de Mortemart. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

"Madame D’Augeard," oil on canvas, oval, 29" x 23 1/4". Photo from Witt Library.{"1 Mme Augeard."} Born Anne de Serre de Saint-Roman, married Mathieu François Augeard. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Copy of Mme Damerval."} Mme D’Amerval, see 1774. This painting may have been a copy of VLB’s portrait of 1774, or could have been a copy after another artist.

{"1 Mme Deplan."}

1775 "Albin Louis Caze de Méry," 25 1/8" x 20 7/8", private collection. {"1 M. Caze."} Albin Louis Caze de Méry, 1751-1818, eldest son of Nicolas Robert Caze (called M. de Juvencourt, Conseiller au Parlement de Paris, Trésorier général des Postes et relais, fermier général) and his second wife, Suzanne Felix Lescarmontier. This young man had three other brothers (Alexandre-Louis, Alexandre-Noël and Anne-Claude). [Color photo and biography provided by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 M. Goban."} Probably Nicolas-Jean-Baptiste Gobin, notaire rue Saint-Denis. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mlle de Rubec."} Françoise Madeleine de Rabec, daughter of a director of the Compagnie des Indes, born Saint-Malo 1758. She was married at 17. Upon being widowed, she remarried in 1778, at the age of 19, to le baron Pierre Paul de Kolly, fermier général, son of a banker of the court, exécuteur testamentaire de samuel Bernard, the richest man of France. Her husband was executed in May 1793, and she was sent to the guillotine on 4 November 1793. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.] [For comparison, see a portrait of the sitter that was published in Mme de Kolly: Une Conspiration Politique et Financière by Edmond Seligman.]

{"1 Le Chevalier de Roncherol."}

{"1 Le Prince de Rohan, the elder."}Possibilities include: (1) Jules-Henri-Mériadec, prince de Rohan, maréchal de France (1726-88). However, VLB probably would have referred to his military title. (2) His only son, Henri-Louis-Marie de Rohan, 1745-1809. At the time his title was prince de Guéméné, but as VLB didn’t record her list until decades later, she might have chosen to record him by the title prince de Rohan, which he inherited in 1788. (3) The latter’s eldest son, Charles-Alain-Gabriel (1764-1836). [If VLB had painted #3, as well as his youngest brother Jules (listed below), it would seem odd that she wouldn’t also have painted and listed the middle brother, Louis-Victor-Mériadec (1766-1846). Thus, #2 seems most likely.]

"Prince Jules de Rohan," 19 x 15 cm, sold in Paris Auction ca. 1986. {"1 Le Prince Jules de Rohan."} Jules-Armand-Louis de Rohan-Guemenée (1768-1836), son of Henri-Louis- Marie de Rohan (1745-1809), and grandson of Jules-Henri-Mériadec, prince de Rohan, maréchal de France (1726-88).

{"1 M. Ducluzel."} François-Pierre du Cluzel de la Chabrerie de Montpipeau, maître des requêtes. Lived 1734-83. Intendant de la généralité de Tours, from 1766 to his death. His sister, Charlotte du Cluzel, was married (in 1754) to Joseph Louis Le Pelletier de Morfontaine, who commissioned a study of a head from VLB in 1781, and a cupid in 1789. VLB painted this sitter’s daughter, Marie Thérèse du Cluzel, in 1779. For comparison, here is a portrait by Alexander Roslin (provided by Charles Vatinel). [Sitter identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"2 Le Comte and la Comtesse de Cologand."} Louis Emmanuel de Coetlogon, lieutenant général des Armées du Roi, décoré de l’Ordre national de Saint Louis. His wife, Melle Roy de Vaquières (ca. 1747-?), comtesse de Coetlogon, dame pour accompagner the countess d’Artois. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mlle Julie, who married Talma."} Louise-Julie Carreau (1756-1815) would marry the tragic actor François-Joseph Talma in 1791; they divorced 1801. A miniature, possibly after VLB, has been located. Léon-Pascal Glain (ca. 1749-78) painted a pastel of the sitter. [Image provided by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mme Courville."} Anne-Henriette Delattre D’Aubigny, married Georges-Firmin Gillet baron de Courville, mistress of prince de Montbarrey. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mme la Marquise de Gérac."} Born Anne Josêphe Bonnier de La Mosson. In 1734 she married Michel Ferdinand d’Albert d’Ailly duc de Picquigny, duc de Chaulnes. After being widowed, she married Henri de Giac, called the marquis de Giac. She died in Paris in 1782. (She was also painted by Nattier.) (Information from Olivier Blanc.)

{"1 Mme de Laborde."} Perhaps Rosalie Claire Josephe de Nettine (1737-1815), the daughter of the Vicomte and Victomtesse de Nettine, of Brussels. In 1760 she married Jean-Joseph de Laborde, the court banker. Their children were Alexandre and Nathalie. Mme de La Borde’s sister, Mme Micault d’Harvelay, married Calonne in England in 1787. [Information from Olivier Blanc and Kevin Kelly.] Olivier also suggests this could have been Adélaïde Suzanne de Vismes de Saint-Alphonse, who married Jean Benjamin de Laborde. She was a friend of Mme du Barry and Sophie Arnould. In 1780, the queen created for her the charge of "dame du lit" in Versailles.

{"1 Mlle de Givris."} Perhaps a sister of François Nicolas-Henri Le Sueur de Givry (married Sophie Lévêque de Courmont in 1772) and Charles-Antoine Le Sueur de Givry (married Marie-Louise Charlotte de Foucault de Coucy in 1767). Or if the sitter was a young girl, she could have been a daughter of one of these brothers. Alternatively, the sitter could have been a relative of Louis-Auguste Aubelin de Givry, chevalier de malte. [Suggested by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mlle de Ganiselot."}

1775 "Jacques Louis Vézalay," oil on canvas, 30 3/4" x 25 1/2" (78.3 x 64.7 cm), private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 119 (color).  {"1 M. de Veselay."} Jacques Louis Guillaume Bouret de Vézalay (1733-1810), a former treasurer general of artillery and engineering, who became a land surveyor, acquiring vast landholdings that became new Parisian neighborhoods. He was married in October 1765 to Marie Louise Corby d'Heurnonville (died 1827), whose portrait was painted by Alexandre Roslin.

1775 "André Cardinal de Fleury," oil on canvas, 24 3/4" x 20-1/2" (63 x 52 cm), Musée National du Château de Versailles. {"I painted portraits of Cardinal Fleury and La Bruyère from contemporary engravings." - Letter III} André-Hercule de Fleury, 1653-1742. Biography. [Photo provided by Angela Demutskiy.]

1775 "Jean de La Bruyère," oil, Musée National du Château de Versailles. New International Illustrated Encyclopedia of Art, p. 4757. {"I painted portraits of Cardinal Fleury and La Bruyère from contemporary engravings." - Letter III}

???? "Young Nobleman," oil on canvas, 28 1/2" x 23 1/2", this image was found at the Witt Library, attributed to VLB, and strikes me as being very similar to her portrait (above) of Jean de La Bruyère, in terms of pose, wig style, clothing style.

1776

{"1 La Princesse de Craon."} Marie Charlotte De Rohan-Chabot, Princess of Beauvau-Craon (1729-1807). [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Le Marquis de Chouart."} M Chouart de Buzenval de Magny, a Receveur général des finances. He was married to Sophie de Magny. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Le Prince de Montbarrey."} Alexandre Marie Léonor de Saint-Mauris (alias Saint-Maurice), prince de Montbarrey (1732-1796). Named Minister of War on 22 September 1777 by Louis XVI, but resigned on 17 December 1780 following conflicts with Marie-Antoinette. He emigrated in 1791. (Identified by Timothy F. Boettger.) VLB also painted this sitter in 1779.

{"1 Le Baron Gros, painter, as a child."} {"I had known Gros since he was barely seven years old when I painted his portrait, and even then recognised the love of painting in that child’s eyes and guessed he would one day be a great colorist." - Chap. XXXIV} Antoine-Jean Gros, 1771-1835. For reference, here’s a painting (not by VLB) of the sitter as a young man.

{"1 Mme Grant, later Princess de Talleyrand."} This is a listing error on VLB’s part, as Mme Grand was only 14 in 1776, and still living in India. See instead the listing for 1783.

{"1 Le Comte des Deux-Ponts."} Either Count Wilhelm von Forbach, 1754-1807, or his brother Christian, 1752-1817. Both were French officers of the regiment Royal Deux-Ponts that was established by their father, Duke Christian IV von Zweibrucken, in 1775. (Both Zweibrucken and Deux-Ponts mean "two bridges".) Their mother, Maryann Camasse, later Countess von Forbach, had in her youth been a ballerina in the court of King Louis the XIV. The regiment came to America in 1780 to take part in the Revolutionary War. In October of 1781, while Alexander Hamilton stormed redoubt # 10 at Yorktown, several French regiments under the command of Wilhelm stormed redoubt # 9. The attack was successful and Cornwallis surrendered, effectively ending the War.

{"1 Mme de Montbarrey."} Parfaite-Thais de Mailly, daughter of Louis, count de Mailly, marquis de Nesles, and d’Anne Françoise l’Arbaleste de Melun. In 1753 she married Prince Montbarrey Saint-Maurice, minister of Louis XVI whose pastel portrait is at Versailles (previously confused with Breteuil). [Identified by Olivier Blanc.] VLB painted her sister, "Mme Davaray" [D’Avaray], in 1786.

{"1 A banker."}

{"2 M. and Mme Toullier."} For comparison, here is a portrait of M. Toullier attributed to Van Loo. [Photo provided by Olivier Blanc.]

{"2 M. and Mme Toullier."} For comparison, here is a portrait of Mme Toullier attributed to Van Loo. [Photo provided by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 La Princesse d’Aremberg."} The Comtesse de La Marck: Marie-Anne Françoise de Noailles, wife of the count de La Marck, prince d’Arenberg. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 M. de Saint-Denis."}

"Comte de Provence," Unlocated. {"12 Monsieur, the King’s brother."} Louis Stanislas Xavier de France (17 November 1755, Palace of Versailles – 16 September 1824, Louvre Palace), the Comte de Provence, later Louis XVIII. None of these paintings have been located. It is unknown whether VLB was simply copying the work of another artist, or whether she actually had a sitting with comte de Provence. See the drawing listed next.

1777 "Comte de Provence," black chalk, white chalk and traces of wash on buff paper, 14 3/4" x 11 1/2" (37.6 x 29 cm), inscribed: Monsieur / Mde Le Brun 1777. Windsor, Royal Collection of Elizabeth II, Baillio (2015), p. 38. As noted above, we do not know the location of any of VLB's 1776 portraits of comte de Provence. Perhaps this drawing was related. William Pether prepared a mezzotint [plate size: 14 3/8 in. x 10 3/8 in. (366 mm x 265 mm); paper size: 15 1/2 in. x 11 3/8 in. (394 mm x 290 mm) paper size] of VLB's painting, with Pether's mezzotint being published by John Boydell on 9 Nov. 1778. [Mezzotint source: National Portrait Gallery website.]

1777 "Comtesse de Provence," black, white, and red chalk on paper, 15 1/8" x 11 3/8" (38.4 x 28.9 cm), inscribed: Madame / Mde Le Brun 1777. Windsor, Royal Collection of Elizabeth II, Baillio (2015), p. 38. Marie Joséphine Louise de Savoie, 1753-1810. Perhaps this drawing is related to the 1778-listed portrait of Comtesse de Provence. William Pether prepared a mezzotint [plate size: 14 3/8 in. x 10 3/8 in. (366 mm x 265 mm); paper size: 15 1/2 in. x 11 3/8 in. (394 mm x 290 mm) paper size] of VLB's painting, with Pether's mezzotint, being published by John Boydell on 9 Nov. 1778. 

1776 "Pierre Valesque," 31 1/2" x 26," Revue de l’Art, 47:46, 1980. {"2 M. and Mme de Valesque."} [The pair of portraits was sold 3/31/1971 for $10,750 by Rheims & Laurin, Paris.]

1776 "Margeurite Monlong, wife of Pierre Valesque," 31 1/2" x 26," Revue de l’Art, 47:46, 1980. {"2 M. and Mme de Valesque."} [The pair of portraits was sold 3/31/1971 for $10,750 by Rheims & Laurin, Paris.]

"Chevalier de Vauréal," unlocated. {"1 The young Vaubal."} Olivier Blanc supplied this photograph, which was exhibited in 1925 as a portrait by VLB. The owner believed the sitter was the chevalier de Vauréal, natural son of prince de Conti, who some years later married Julie Ménars. Olivier notes that Vaubal is not a French name, and suspects that it is a mistake for this sitter, Vauréal.

"Mme de Lamoignon de Malesherbes," oil on canvas. {"1 Mme de Lamoignon."} Pauline Francoise de Lamoignon de Malesherbes (1758 – 1827), married to Charles Philippe Simon de Montboissier. -- This image and the identification was found on the Internet by Jana Talkenberg. [Prior to the location of the image, Olivier Blanc had thought that the sitter would be: Marie-Elisabeth Berryer, daughter of Nicolas René Berryer, secrétaire d’étét au dépertement de la Marine et de Catherine-Madeleine Jorts de Fribois. On 4 September 1758 she married Chrétien François de Lamoignon, marquis de Bâville, baron de saint-Yon, président à mortier au parlement de Paris, ministre de Louis XVI, Garde des Sceaux from 1787-1788 (died 16 May 1789). He was a cousin of Lamoignon de Malesherbes, the defender of Louis XVI. They owned the castle of Bâville. We await confirmation from Olivier whether this image and proposed identity of the sitter as Pauline Francoise de Lamoignon de Malesherbes is reasonable.]

{"4 M. de Savalette."} Savalette de Magnanville. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.] VLB also painted his son (1777, "M. de Lange").

1776 "Prince of Nassau-Siegen," oil on canvas, oval, 25 3/8" x 21 1/8" (64.4 x 53.5 cm), signed and dated lower left: Mde Vigée Le Brun / 1776. Indianapolis Museum of Art. Baillio (1982), p. 36 (b&w); museum slide; Baillio (2015), p. 121 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 69 (color); Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 91 (color). {"1 Le Prince de Nassau."} {"L’Abbé Giroux first introduced me to the Prince de Nassau when he was very young and I, likewise, was still unmarried; he asked me to paint his portrait, which I did, full length but scaled down and in oil." - Pen Portraits} Karl Heinrich Nikolaus Otto von Nassau-Siegen (5 January 1745, Senarpont, France - 10 April 1808, Tynna, Ukraine) was a son of Maximilien Guillaume Adolphe of Nassau-Siegen (1722-1748) and his wife Amicie de Monchy (d. 1752). Maximilien was a son of Charlotte de Mailly-Nesle (d. 1769), who had a rocky marriage with Emmanuel of Nassau-Siegen (6 January 1688 - 1 August 1735), a member of the Catholic branch of the House of Orange. Emmanuel originally recognized Maximilien as his son, though at the end of his life rejected him as illegitimate. The Aulic Council of the Holy Roman Empire declared Maximilien illegitimate on 17 December 1744, at the urging of William IV, Prince of Orange, and the decision was confirmed by Emperor Francis I on 15 October 1745. A French court in 1756 posthumously recognized Maximilien as the legitimate son of Emmanuel, and his son therefore styled himself Prince of Nassau-Siegen. However, Nassau-Siegen was in the territory of the Holy Roman Empire, which did not change its stance, and Nassau-Siegen was inherited by a different branch of the family. The sitter accompanied Louis-Antoine de Bougainville in his voyage around the world, 1766-69, with the most memorable stop being in Tahiti, discovered only 10 months earlier. On 14 September 1780, he married the Polish countess Karolina Gozdzka (1747-1807), whose first marriage to Prince Janusz Wladyslaw Sanguszko had been annulled in 1778. See the Baillio (1982) description.

{"1 Mme de Brente."}

{"1 Lady Berkley."}

"Mme Sanlot," Musée promenade de Marly-le-Roi, Louveciennes. {"1 Mme Saulot."} Born Marie-Rose Savalette de Magnanville, she married Etienne René Agnan Sanlot, fermier général (tax collector). They lived in Paris and château du Plessis near Blois. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

1776 “Mme Sanlot,” pastel on paper, oval, 28 3/4" x 22 3/4" (73 x 58 cm), signed and dated. Private collection. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006); Vigée Lebrun (2015), Parkstone Int'l, ISBN 9781785250729, p. 29 (color).

"Countess Urszula Potocka," oil on canvas, oval, 26 3/4" x 20 7/8" (68 x 52.8 cm). {"1 La Comtesse Potocka."} Christie's 11936: Old Masters-Part II (14 April 2016). Christie's, relying on Baillio, identify the sitter as Urszula Zamoyska (born ca. 1750; died ca. 1808-16), was a daughter of Jan Jakub Graf Zamoyski (22 July 1716 – 10 February 1790) and his wife Ludwika Maria Poniatowski (November 30, 1728 – February 10, 1781). The sitter was a granddaughter of Stanislaw Poniatowski (September 15, 1676 – August 29, 1762) and a niece of king Stanisław II August (17 January 1732 – 12 February 1798). She would first marry Wincenty Gawel Potocki (1740-1825), divorcing him before 1781; there were no issue recorded from that marriage. She then married Count Michal Jerzy Mniszech (1742-14 March 1806). One source shows that she had four children with him, through the age of 48 (!): (1) Michael Mniszech (1785-85); (2) Elżbieta "Izabella" Mniszech (5 August 1790-13 September 1852); (3) Carl Philip Mniszech (1794-1846); and (4) Paulina Constance Mniszech (1798-1846). VLB would paint her daughter Elżbieta in St. Petersburg. [An earlier identity had been proposed for this listing by Portrety Polskie Elzbiety Vigée-Lebrun, by Jerzy Mycielski & Stanislav Wasylewski, 1927, p. 150-52, identifying Anna Teresa Potocka, née Ossolińska (1746-after 1812), who in 1760 married Józef Potocki; they believe that portrait was destroyed by fire in Baranow (Baronovichi?).]

{"2 Mme de Verdun."} {"...she was my first friend, and remains to this day my closest..." - Pen Portraits} Anne Catherine Le Preudhomme de Chatenoy, from the family de Lorraine. Daughter of Nicolas François comte de Chatenoy and Françoise de Barbarat de Marizot. In 1777, she married Jean Jacques Marie Verdun (or de Verdun), fermier général depuis 1781 and honorary superintendent of finances for comte d’Artois. {Biographical information from Olivier Blanc.} VLB also lists portraits for this sitter for 1779, 1780, 1782, and this 1776 listing. Dorotheum suggested that some of the later paintings were merely copies of an earlier portrait.

{"1 Mme de Montmorin."} Mme de Montmorin Saint-Hérem (born Françoise-Gabrielle de Tane), daughter of Emmanuel Frédéric de Tane. She was the wife of the ministry for foreign affairs, who was himself killed in the September massacres of 1792. The sitter was dame pour accompagner Madame Sophie de France. She was guillotined, with her son Calixte de Montmorin. She also had two daughters (see next listing). For reference, here is a portrait by Louis Tocque. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Her daughter."} The previous sitter had two daughters. (a) Victoire Françoise de Montmorin (10 August 1765-July 1794), married comte César Guilaume de La Luzerne, with whom she had two daughters, Aglaé (1786) and Camille (1788). She also had a daughter with M. Trudaine. She was dame de compagnie of Madame Victoire, and died in prison under the Terror. (b) Pauline de Montmorin Saint-Hérem (1768-?), married the Comte de Beaumont ca. 1786. She appears on VLB’s list for 1788. She was divorced 1800. At some point, she was a mistress of Chateaubriand. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

ca. 1776 "The Artist’s Maid," black chalk on cream-colored paper, 8 1/2" x 6 1/8" (21.7 x 15.6 cm); inscribed lower left: Ma bonne, signed lower right: Vigée Le Brun. Musée Carnavalet, Paris. Baillio (1982), p. 37; Baillio (2015), p. 209. See the Baillio (1982) description.

1776 "Mme Saint-Gresse de Mornay," pastel, signed and dated. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). [Not listed or mentioned by VLB.] This painting was owned by the museum of Angoulême, France, and was published in 1911. [Olivier Blanc provided this image.]

1776 "Son of Mme Saint-Gresse de Mornay," pastel, signed and dated. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). [Not listed or mentioned by VLB.] This painting was owned by the museum of Angoulême, France, and was published in 1911. [Olivier Blanc provided this image.]

1776 "Hanriette de Barbentane,countess de Vauban." [Not listed or mentioned by VLB.] A copy of this painting is in the castle of marquis de Barbentane, near Avignon. The sitter was the sister of Aglaé de Barbentane, countess d’Hunolstein, whom VLB painted in 1777. [Information courtesy of Olivier Blanc.]

1776 "Mme d’Espeuilles," National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, D.C. [where it is identified as Mme de Espeveuil]. Photo from Witt Library [where it was identified as Duchesse de Guiche]. Thais Simone Pauline de la Cour de Balleroy (1/3/1755-Sept. 1806), daughter of Charles Auguste de la Cour marquis de Balleroy and Adélaîde Elisabeth de Lépinau. In 1774, she married Etienne Vivans de Jaucourt, vicomte de Jaucourt, marquis de Chantôme and baron d'Espeuilles. (7/10/1727-1780). Their daughter Anne (the future duchess de Lorges-Civrac) was born in 1775. [Not listed by VLB.] [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

1776 "Pierre Louis Dubus," oil on canvas, 31 1/2" x 25 5/8" (80 x 65 cm), Paris Musée de la Comédie Francaise. Baillio (2015), p. 120 (color). [Not listed or mentioned by VLB.] Pierre Louis Dubus, known as Préville (19 September 1721, Paris - 18 December 1799, Beauvais). The greatest French comedian of the 18th Century, is portrayed here in the role of "Mascarille." Previously attributed to Carle van Loo, Baillio has attributed the painting to VLB based in part on similarities to her 1776 portrait of the Prince of Nassau.

1777

Young Lady,” pastel, oval, 28” x 23”, signed & dated at center right: Md Le Brun 1777. Sold at Christie's on 9 Dec. 2009 for $50,656. [VLB has listed four women for 1777 that do not yet have images associated with them: Mme Perrin, Mme de Beaudoin, Mme Le Normand, and Mme de la Fargue. Perhaps this is one of those works (though sometimes VLB omitted a sitter from her list, or listed a painting in the wrong year).] Thanks to Angela Demutskiy for locating this image.

1777 "Portrait of a Young Woman," oil on canvas, 28 3/4" x 23 5/8" (73 x 60 cm). Art News, 13 Jun 1936, p. 11; Beaux Arts, 3 Sep 1937, p. 5; Auction catalog, Christie´s, Paris, June, 21, 2012. [VLB has listed four women for 1777 that do not yet have images associated with them: Mme Perrin, Mme de Beaudoin, Mme Le Normand, and Mme de la Fargue. Perhaps this is one of those works (though sometimes VLB omitted a sitter from her list, or listed a painting in the wrong year).]

{"1 Le Marquis de Crèvecoeur."} Charles-Hubert de Levesquevin, marquis de Crèvecoeur (1740-?), son of Hubert de Levesquevin, marquis de Crèvecoeur and Marie Thérèse Symon. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

"Baron de Pombal," unlocated. {"1 Le Baron de Vombal."} Dom Pedro Juan Sebastien de Silva Tavora, Ménézès et Castro, Marquis de Pombal et d’Oragua, accédité ambassadeur de Portugal à la cour de France in 1759. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mme Perrin."}

{"1 M. Oglovi."} Olivier Blanc suggests O’Gilvy would be a more likely spelling.

{"1 M. Saint-Hubert."} M. Vassal de Saint-Hubert, lived rue Blanche. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

1772? "Countess D’Hunolstein," pastel, oval, 28 3/4" x 22 7/8", Hôtel Drouot, Paris, published in Portraits de femmes, by Olivier Blanc. {"1 Mme de Nolstein."} Aglaé De Barbentane, Comtesse D’Hunolstein, who became the mistress of La Fayette in 1780. [Image courtesy of Olivier Blanc and Jana Talkenberg.] An image of a different sitter was also given this identification; but that appears incorrect.

{"1 Mme de Beaudoin."} Mme Carre, wife of Sylvain Raphaël Carré de Beaudouin, comte de Baudouin, maréchal de camp des armées du roi. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

"Mademoiselle ‘Artois," oil on canvas, oval, 24 1/2" x 20 1/2". Collection Marquis of Chaponay. {"2 Mlle Dartois."} The other copy was sold by Parke Bernet, Oct. 22, 1970, estate of Irma N. Strauss. Perhaps Sophie d’Artois (1776-1782), daughter of Charles Philippe, the Comte d’Artois (1757-1836). He was the youngest brother of Louis XVI, and would become Charles X (1824-30). -- However, there was a family called Dartois. One Mlle Dartois married Jean-Etienne Le Sénéchal.

Young Musician,” oil on canvas, 92 x 73 cm, scheduled for auction in Paris ( Lot 29) on 7 April 2010. The text from the auction catalog reads: “Portrait of a young musician, oil on canvas (lining; small restorations), Signed middle left, Md Le Brun 1777. The label on the reverse reads, 'Collection of Baron Arthur de Rothschild' with number handwritten in ink 64. Wax seal with the arms of Baron Rothschild. Provenance: Collection of Baron James de Rothschild, Paris, Galliera, Study & Laurentin Rheims, Robert Lebel expert, 1 December 1966, No. 132 (reproduced).” The catalog suggests that the sitter could be Dartois, perhaps assuming that because of her youth she could not be one of the married ladies VLB lists for this year. Thanks to Olivier Blanc for bringing this auction to our attention.

{"1 Mme Le Normand."} Also on the list for 1774. See there for identification.

{"1 M. de Finnel."} Olivier Blanc suggests that the sitter was one of several cousins, actually named Fumel. Perhaps it was Philibert, marquis de Fumel, Gentilhomme de Monsieur, who in 1770 married Françoise d’Aldart and then in 1776 married Charlotte Henriette du Tillet; or Joseph, marquis de Fumel, who married Elisabeth de Conty d’Hargicourt; or Jean Joseph, marquis de Fumel who in 1763 married Marie Anne d’Abzac.

{"1 M. de Lange."} Charles-Pierre-Paul Savalette de Lange (1746-1797). Son of Savalette de Magnanville and Emilie Joly de Choin, married (in 1791) Louise-Geneviève Hatry. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.] VLB also painted the sitter’s father the previous year.

1777 "Victoire de Bavilliers, Comtesse de Bernon de Montélégier," oil on canvas, oval, 25-1/4" x 21-1/4," signed and dated lower right: Me Lebrun / 1777. Apollo, Apr 1995, p. 27. {"1 Mme de Montlegièts."} [Improved photo from auction catalogue provided by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mme de la Fargue."} Possibly Marie Suzanne de Malabiou, who married Etienne de Malabiou de la Fargue, capitaine au régiment de Pons, depuis Guyene, chevalier de l'ordre royal et militaire de St-Louis. Or it might refer to the wife of their son, Florent de Malabiou de la Fargue (?-1793), seigneur de Belvèze, lieutenant-colonel au régiment de Guyenne, puis maréchal-des-camps et armées du roi, who married a daughter (name unknown) of the Kérimel family of Brittany. (Suggested by Timothy F. Boettger.)

Olivier Blanc questions whether pendant portraits of a man [*] and wife [*], ca. 1777, attributed by Anne-Marie Passez to Labille Guiard, might actually be by VLB. VLB lists two couples for 1778 for whom we don’t have portraits.

1777 "Jacques Thilorier," oil on canvas, oval, 74 x 59 cm, signed and dated, Private Collection, France. [Not listed by VLB, though she lists painting his wife.] Lived 1742-1783. Conseiller au Parlement de Bordeaux puis Maître des Requêtes au Parlement de Paris. This portrait was auctioned on December 14, 2004 in Paris Drouot. [Information from Olivier Blanc.]

1777 "Allegory of Lady as Diana," pastel, 24 5/8” x 21”, signed and dated. [Image provided by Angela Demutskiy.] [Not listed by VLB, but referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1783 at the Salon de la Correspondance.] Sold by Christie's New York, 24 January 21, lot 126 for $29, 375; auctioned again June 2004.

1777 "Mother and son," pastel, 36 5/8" x 43 3/4" (93 x 111 cm), signed and dated at right:  [...] / Le Brun / 1777. Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 201 (color).

1778

ca. 1778 "Presumed Portrait of the Duchesse De Chartres," oil on canvas, oval, 27" x 21" (68.5 x 53.3 cm), Private collection. Baillio (1982), p. 38 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 149 (color). {"1 Mme la Duchesse de Chartres."} Louise Marie Adélaïde de Penthièvre, Duchess de Chartres (and later Duchess d’Orléans), 1753-1821. When her brother, the Prince de Lamballe, died in 1768, she became heiress to France’s greatest fortune. As a result she was married in 1769 to her cousin Louis Philippe Joseph d’Orléans (13 April 1747 – 6 November 1793), Duc de Chartres (1752), later Duc d’Orléans (1785), changed his name to Philippe Égalité (1792). Their eldest son, Louis Philippe (1773-1850) would reign as King of France from 1830-48. [Baillio thinks this was VLB’s first portrait of this sitter, despite VLB’s mention of the sitter in Letter II, which covers the time circa 1771.] See the Baillio (1982) description.

{"1 Mme de Teuilly."}Pauline Fortunée Françoise de Blot de Chauvigny (1761-1829). Her father was Louis de Blot de Chauvigny, baron de Vivier. Her mother was Marguerite de Champs, dame pour accompagner the duchesse de Chartres, niece of countesse de Blot, born Charpentier d'Ennery (herself a lady of duchesse de Chartres). In 1776 the sitter married Antoine Charles Gabriel de Montessus de Rully (in French his name is pronounced “Reuilly”), born in1755 in Rully (Bourgogne), chevalier de Saint-Louis, died in 1790. After the marriage he never had any contacts with his wife, they did not live together and she had no children with him. She had a long relation with duke d'Aumont et de Piennes (who was already married to Mélanie de Rochechouart, another sitter of VLB). After both count de Rully and Mélanie de Rochechouart died in 1790 at the beginning of the Revolution, Pauline de Blot de Chauvigny married duc d'Aumont in 1792. [Identification and biography courtesy of Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 M. de Saint-Priest, ambassador."} Probably François Emmanuel (1735-?), ambassadeur en Suède puis à la Porte (Turquie) since 1768. He was a counsellor of the king future Louis XVIII during the emigration. He had a brother, Marie Joseph de Guignard de Saint-Priest, conseiller en la Cour des Aydes de Montpellier, maître des Requêtes, Intendant du Languedoc, married Melle de Ferrières. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"2 M. and Mme Dailly."} M. François Dailly (ca. 1724-?) was directeur général des impositions et premier commis de l’administration des finances. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"2 M. and Mme Domnival."}

{"1 Mme Monge."} VLB also listed a Mme Monge for 1775. That sitter might have been Marie Adélaïde Deschamps, wife of Louis Monge, later (1808) chevalier de l'Empire (1748-1827), professeur à l'école militaire de Metz and examinateur des aspirants de marine. The same sitter might be represented here, or this could be her sister-in-law, Marie Catherine Huart (?-1846) who in 1777 married Louis’s brother, Gaspard Monge (1746-1818), later (1808) comte Monge de Péluse et de l'Empire, who was ministre de la marine in 1792. (Suggested by Timothy F. Boettger.)

{"1 Mme Dégeraudot."} Marie Chancey, married Antoine, baron De Gerando, son of Antoine De Gerando (1739-1785) conseiller secrétaire du roi en la cour des monnaies de Lyon et de Marie Biclet. The sitter and her husband had two sons, one Antoine (1770-1823) married Melle Barberi de Breccioldi; the other son, Joseph-Marie, married Marie-Anne de Rathsamhausen (cousin of the duke of Wurtemberg and princess de Hesse). In the 17th Century the name of this family was written "Degérando". [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 M. le Marquis de Cossé."} Marquis de Cossé-Brissac

{"1 Le Marquis d’Armaillé."} Either Pierre-Ambroise de La Forest, marquis D’Armaille, or Louis André de La Forest, marquis D’Armaille. [Suggested by Olivier Blanc.]

1778 "Louis-Hercule Timoleon de Cossé, duc de Brissac," pastel, oval, very faint signature. Brissac collection, Château de Brissac, France, Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jan 1982, p. 21 (b&w); Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). [Another portrait of the duc de Brissac appears on the website, but it might be the father of this sitter, and it wasn’t painted by VLB, but by Louis Carrogis de Carmontelle, according to research by Angela Demutskiy. {"1 Le Duc de Cossé."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1783 at the Salon de la Correspondance.] Born 1734, [actually became Duc in 1780 upon his father’s death,] massacred at Versailles 9 Sept 1792. [Attribution by Joseph Baillio.]

{"1 Mlle de Ponse."} Augustine Eléonore de Pons (1775-1843), daughter of viscount Charles-Armand Augustin, vicomte de Pons, comte de Roquefort (called "l’arbitre des élégances") and his wife, Pulchérie Elonore de Lannion. The girl grew up to marry the marquis de Tourzel after the Revolution. [Identified by Olivier Blanc, who suggests that an unidentified portrait attributed to VLB may be the portrait of this sitter at age four.]

"Comte de Provence," {"1 Monsieur, the King’s brother, for M. de Lévis."} Louis Stanislas Xavier de France (17 November 1755, Palace of Versailles – 16 September 1824, Louvre Palace), the Comte de Provence, later Louis XVIII. M. de Lévis was probably Pierre Marc Gaston de Lévis (1764-1830), or else his father, François-Gaston de Lévis (1720-1787). The father was sous-lieutenant au régiment de la marine, capitaine, aide-major, colonel, chevalier de Saint-Louis, brigadier-général et commandant en second, commandant en chef, lieutenant-général, gouverneur de l’Artois, maréchal de France et duc de Lévis. The comte de Provence at some time developed a romantic interest in the younger Lévis, according to letters that were published in "Souvenirs portraits du duc de Lévis, followed by intimate letters from MONSIEUR, count of Provence, to the duke of Lévis, Paris, Mercure de France, 1993." [Information courtesy of Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mme la Marquise de Montemey."} Anne Therèse Bochart de Champigny (1741-?), daughter of Jean-Paul Bochart, maréchal de camp, and Anne Henriette de Meuves. In 1769 she became the second wife of Henri Louis Pompone, marquis de Montenay (1710-?), capitaine de cavalerie au Régiment de la reine. They had a daughter in 1771. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

"Mme Denis de Foissy," pastel, 28 1/4" x 23", photo from Witt Library; Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). {"1 Mme de Foissy."} Mme Denis De Foissy, wife of Pierre De Foissy, receveur général des finances de Metz et d’Alsace. She became the mistress of Le Peletier de Mortefontaine. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

"Alexandre Brongniart," oval.  Circa 1786, this had been in the collection of Dumas Milne Edwards. {"2 Brongniart’s children."} Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847), son of architect Alexandre-Theodore Brongniart (1739-1813) and his wife, Anne Louise d'Égremont (1741-1829). Alexandre would marry Cécile Coquebert de Montbret. He became an accomplished geologist, mineralogist, and chemist. He served as director of the Sèvres porcelain factory from 1800, and was responsible for its great fame. He also served as professor of mineralogy at the Museum of Natural History in Paris from 1822-47, and made significant contributions to the study of fossils. VLB would paint a third Brongniart sibling, Emilie, who was to be born in 1780.

"Louise Brongniart" {"2 Brongniart's chidlren.} Louise Brongniart (1772-1845), daughter of architect Alexandre-Theodore Brongniart (1739-1813) and his wife, Anne Louise d'Égremont (1741-1829). Louise would marry the marquis de Dampierre. [We found an image that was alleged to be Louise Brongniart, but do not believe that it is by VLB. We also have an image called "Anatole Brongniart". We are unsure of the identity of this sitter, as well as the attribution to VLB.]

{"1 M. Rannomanoski."} Perhaps M. de Rasonmoski, whose portrait by Augustin is in the Pierpont Morgan Collection. [Suggested by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mme de Rassy."} Mme de Rassy de Bazoncourt, comtesse de Chenois. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

1778 "Emilie de Coutances, Marquise De Bec De Lievre," oil on canvas, 38 1/2" x 31 1/4." {"1 Mme la présidente de Bec de Lièvre."} The wife of Hilarion-Anne-François-Philippe, marquis de Becdelièvre de Penhoët, premier président de la Chambre des Comptes de Bretagne. They lived in Paris and in the castle of Penhoët in Bretagne. [Sold by Sotheby’s on 10/13/1989 for $15,000, and again in 10/94 for $36,000.] [Biographical information provided by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Copy of a portrait of the Queen."} [Baillio (1982) mentions that VLB’s earliest commissions for the Queen’s Household were to copy four existing portraits of the Queen by other artists; these copies were actually painted between 1776 and 1777.] 

"Comtesse de Provence". Unlocated. {"2 Madame, the wife of Monsieur, the King’s brother."} Marie Joséphine Louise de Savoie, 1753-1810. It is unknown whether VLB had a sitting with the Comtesse at this point, or whether this was a copy of a portrait by another painting. See also VLB's drawing of the Comtesse, discussed in the 1776 section following the listing of "Monsieur, the King's brother." Perhaps the drawing was related to this lost portrait.

{"1 Copy of portrait of Mme Dubarry."} [Perhaps a copy of a portrait by François Hubert Drouais, whose paintings of Mme Du Barry are well-known. James B. Musick, Bulletin of the City Art Museum of Saint Louis, XXVI, No. 3, 1941, pp. 54-55, pointed out that VLB’s portrait of her brother was very similar to Drouais’ 1760 portrait, "The Young Pupil."] Jeanne Becu, born 1743. In 1763 she became the mistress of Jean-Baptiste du Barry, and in 1768 she married his brother, Guillaume du Barry, as she also became the last mistress of Louis XV. She was guillotined 8 Dec 1793.

{"1 Mlle Lamoignon."} In 1776, VLB lists a Mme de Lamoignon, and Olivier Blanc identified her as Marie-Elisabeth Berryer, who married M. Lamoignon, président de Basville, ministre de Louis XVI. The couple had nine children, and it was considered possible that this listing was for one of their daughters. A miniature of one of their daughters has been discovered: she is Marie Louise Elisabeth de Lamoignon, who was born in Paris on 3 October 1763. She would later marry François-Edouard Molé comte de Champlâtreux, who was guillotined during the Terror. She died in 1820. She was the mother of the well-known politician, count Mathieu Molé. [Miniature and biography courtesy of Olivier Blanc.]

1778 "My head," oil on canvas, Galerie Cailleux, Paris. Signed & dated. L’Oeil, 398:63, Sep 1988. {"1 Self-portrait, head."} Another source called this self-portrait "Couronnant l’Amour" ("Crowning the Love").

{"1 Copy of a portrait [by another artist] of Queen Marie-Antoinette for M. Boquet."}

1778 "Mme Thilorier," oil on canvas, 74 x 59 cm, oval, Private Collection, France. {"1 Mme Filorier."} The sitter was Mme Thilorier, whom VLB painted in 1773, where the name is given Thilorié. Born François-Augustine Sentuary in 1749 on Bourbon Island (now Reunion Island, East Africa). In 1769 she married Jacques Thilorier (1742-1783). In 1786, she married Jean-Jacques Duval d’ Eprémesnil. She was decapitated in Paris on June 17, 1794 (her husband had been guillotined in April 1794). She was the sister of Mme de Bonneuil, who was painted by VLB in 1773, and also a sister of Mme Testart, who was probably also painted in 1773. [Identification and photo provided by Olivier Blanc, who published a study on the sitter in 1997, through the Paris publishing house of Perrin.] Compare to a 1769 pastel by Perroneau.

1778 "Joseph Vernet," oil on canvas, 36 1/4" x 28 3/8" (92 x 72 cm), signed and dated lower right: Mde Le Brun f. 1778. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Antiques, Jan 1968, p. 110 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 39 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 109 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 71 (color). {VLB incorrectly listed this for 1789: "The portrait of Joseph Vernet, now in the museum."} Claude-Joseph Vernet, 1714-89. See the Baillio (1982) description.

ca. 1778 "Henri-Louis Cain, the Actor Lekain," oil on canvas, 24 1/2" x 22 1/4" oval, Private collection, Baillio (1982), p. 40 (b&w). {"...the notorious Lekain … frightened me with his gloomy, savage manner." - Letter III, c. 1773} {"I remember the famous Le Kain vividly..." - Letter VIII} Lived 1729-Feb 1778, so this was painted at the very end of his life, if not posthumously (or VLB has put it in the wrong year). [Attribution by Joseph Baillio.] See the Baillio (1982) description.

1779

{"1 Le Marquis de Vrague."}

"La Vicomtesse de Virieu," oil on canvas, oval. {"1 Mme la Comtesse de Virieux."} Photo from Witt Library. Claudine de Maleteste (ca. 1753-?) who received in 1780 les honneurs de la cour. She was dame pour accompagner Mme Sophie de France. In 1773 she married Alexandre, vicomte de Virieu-Beauvoir, Lieutenant général, premier Ecuyer de Monsieur frère du Roi. They had two sons, Joseph Alexandre and Louis-Gustave de Virieu. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.] A rectangular version of this painting was sold by Christies as the work of Antoinne Pesne (who died 1757); if that is correct, the oval is neither a portrait of Virieu nor the work of VLB.

{"1 Mme la présidente Richard."} Claire Charlotte Hocquart, wife of Frédéric Henri Richard, the président Richard. (Douarche, procès civils"). [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mme de Mongé."}

1778 "Marie Antoinette, (wearing white satin "robe à paniers")," oil on canvas, 107 1/2" x 76" (273 x 193.5 cm). Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Baillio (2015), p. 151; Baillio (2016), p. 73 (color). There are 2 copies in French state collection (one at Musée National du Château de Versailles - with the queen’s head turned in the opposite direction from the original in Vienna), 1 went to American Congress (burned or looted on Aug. 24, 1814, when British attacked the Capitol), 1 went to Catherine the Great (and now unknown). There are two busts that were produced from the Versailles version (see eight paragraphs below).{"1 Large portrait of the Queen, for the Empress of Russia."} {"This [first] sitting produced that painting of her holding a large basket, dressed in a gown of satin with a rose in one hand. It was destined for her brother, the Emperor, Joseph II, and the Queen ordered two copies, one for the Empress of Russia, the other for her apartments in Versailles or Fontainebleau." - Letter V}

1778 "Queen Marie-Antoinette," oil on canvas, Musée National du Château de Versailles. {"2 Half-length portraits of Queen Marie Antoinette."}

{"2 Copies of the same."} Bust-length copies are known; see the listing below Mme Dicbrie, below.

{"1 Mme de Savigny."} Olivier Blanc suggests four possibilities: (1) Most likely, the wife of Louis-Benign de Bertier de Sauvigny, intendant (governor) of Paris from 1776-1789. (Here’s a portrait by Drouais.) (2) Alternatively, his mother, the wife of Louis-Jean de Bertier de Sauvigny, who had himself been intendant from 1744-1776. (3) Less likely, Mme Chabenat de Bonneuil, vicomtesse de Savigny. (4) Also less likely, Mme de Savigny, wife of Jean-Marc Conde de Savigny, commis au bureau du directeur des Correspondances des Fermes (1785).

{"2 The same with her son."} Probably the wife of Louis-Benign de Bertier de Sauvigny, and her son, Anne Pierre, Vicomte de Bertier de Sauvigny (1770-1848). [By coincidence, his future wife, Marie Renée Louise De Foucquet, would also be painted as a child by VLB, in 1786.]

"Anne-François de Lastic," pastel on paper mounted to canvas, oval, 29 1/8" x 23 5/8" (74 x 60 cm), collection of countess de Lastic, Château de Parentignat (Lastic castle), Auvergne. {"2 M. and Mme de Lastic."} Anne François de Lastic de Siejac (1759-1785), vicomte de Murat, colonel du régiment de Beaujolais, son of François de Lastic and Anne Charron de Ménars. [Identified by Olivier Blanc; image provided by Angela Demutskiy.]

"Louise-Augustine de Montesquiou-Fézensac," pastel on paper mounted to canvas, oval, 28" x 22 3/8" (71 x 57 cm), collection of countess de Lastic, Château de Parentignat (Lastic castle), Puy-de-Dôme, Auvergne, France. Baillio (2015), p. 217 (color)(Cat. 86). {"2 M. and Mme de Lastic."} Anne Louise Hyacinthe Augustine (18 August 1761, Paris - 18 September 1823, Château de Parentignat (Lastic castle). She was the daughter of marquis Anne Élisabeth Pierre de Montesquiou Fézensac (17 October 1739, Paris - 30 December 1798, Paris), maréchal de Camp et député de la noblesse aux Etats-Généraux, and his wife, Jeanne Marie Hocquart de Montfermeil (born 1743). The sitter was dame d'honneur de Madame Elisabeth. She married on 3 February 1779 to Annet François V, Marquis de Lastic (1759-1783), an infantry captain in the Beaujolais regiment. [Identification from Angela Demutskiy, with additional biographical information from Olivier Blanc and improved image from Jana Talkenberg.] Later this year, VLB listed “M. and Mme. De Montesquiou,” generally believed to be the sitter's parents (who were properly Marquis & Marquise de Montesquiou) or perhaps her younger brother and sister-in-law, Henry de Montesquiou Fézensac, who were not titled at the time. In 1780, VLB painted the sitter's husband. In 1782, VLB painted the sitter's brother and sister-in-law, "Mme la Baronne de Montesquiou" and "Le Baron de Montesquiou."

{"1 A Jewish woman for M. de Cossé."}

{"1 Mme Dicbrie."}

"Queen Marie Antoinette," private collection, Paris.  {"2 Copies of the busts of Marie-Antoinette."} This painting came from the Orleans family collection at Eu castle. It is now in a private collection in Paris. A photograph from September 2001, before its restoration, is also available. [Photographed by Olivier Blanc.] Another copy, oil on canvas, 39 3/8" x 31 1/2", Collection of Chateau de Breteuil, France. Also, 1778 "Marie Antoinette," oil on canvas, location unknown.

1779 "Comtesse du Cluzel", oval, 66.5 x 54 cm, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Chartres. Color image courtesy of the museum conservator, Mr. Claude Stephani, forwarded by Olivier Blanc. {"2 Mme Duclusel."}

1779 "Mme de Verdun," oil on canvas, oval, 28 3/8" x 22 7/8." B&w photo at Witt Library; color photo located on Internet by Jana Talkenberg. {"1 Mme de Verdun."} Anne Catherine Le Preudhomme de Chatenoy, from the family de Lorraine. Daughter of Nicolas François comte de Chatenoy and Françoise de Barbarat de Marizot. In 1777, she married Jean Jacques Marie Verdun (or de Verdun), fermier général depuis 1781 and honorary superintendent of finances for comte d’Artois. {Biographical information from Olivier Blanc.} VLB also lists portraits for this sitter for 1776, 1780, 1782, and this 1779 listing. Dorotheum suggested that some of the later paintings were merely copies of an earlier portrait.

{"1 Comte de Dorsen the younger."}

{"2 M. and Mme de Montesquiou."} {"It was while I was at Maupertius [sic], both pregnant and in pain, that I painted his portrait, but I have never been completely happy with it." - Letter IX} Marquis Anne Élisabeth Pierre de Montesquiou Fézensac (17 October 1739, Paris - 30 December 1798, Paris), maréchal de Camp et député de la noblesse aux Etats-Généraux. He was the son of Pierre de Montesquiou (1687-1754), seigneur de Mauperthuis, lieutenant-général des Armées du roi, and his wife Gertrude Marie-Louise Bombarde de Beaulieu. The marquis had inherited the estate of Mauperthuis. In 1760, the marquis married Jeanne Marie Hocquart de Montfermeil (born 1743), a daughter of fermier général Jean Hyacinthe Hocquart de Montfermeil and his wife, Marie Anne Gaillard de la Bouëxière de gagny. They had three children, a daughter Anne-Louise (whom VLB listed earlier this year), a son Anne Élizabeth Pierre de Montesquiou-Fezensac (whom VLB lists in 1782), and a son Henri (1768-1844) (whom VLB does not list).

{"1 Portrait of the Queen for M. de Sartines."} VLB's client was probably Antoine Raymond Jean Gualbert Gabriel de Sartine, comte d'Alby (12 July 1729, Barcelona – 7 September 1801, Tarragona), who served as judge, head of the Paris police, and from 1774 the Naval Secretary.

{"1 Mme de Palerme."} The wife of Simon Zacharie de Palerne de Chaintré de Savy. They lived on rue Montmarte. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 A young American boy."}

1779 "Mlle de la Ferté," pastel, oval, 61 x 53 cm. This painting had belonged to the David-Weill collection in France, but during World War II was looted by the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg and transported to Germany; its current location is unknown. {"1 Mlle de la Ferté."} Agathe Louise Marie de La Ferté, born in Paris 4 January 1767. She was declared the daughter of Paul de La Ferté and Louise-Henriette Helnaut, though she was actually the natural daughter of Omer Louis François Joly de Fleury and Jeanne Louise Catherine Voidet, baronne d’Estat. [Biographical information and photo provided by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 A bowed head for M. de Cossé."}

1779 "Louis Philippe, duc d'Orleans," pastel on paper mounted on canvas, oval, 31 1/2" x 24 3/8" (80 x 62 cm). Private Collection. Baillio (2015), p. 212 (color). {"1 Monseigneur le Duc d’Orléans."} {"In 1782 [sic], I spent some time at Raincy having been invited by the Duc d’Orléans, father of Philippe-Egalité, to paint portraits of Mme de Montesson and himself." - Letter IX -- (VLB later says she was close to her first confinement, so this was late 1779 or very early 1780.)} Louis Philippe d'Orléans (12 May 1725, Versailles - 18 November 1785, Sainte-Assise). As the only son of Louis d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans and his wife Johanna of Baden-Baden, he was titled Duke of Chartres at birth. On 17 December 1743, he married his cousin, Louise Henriette de Bourbon-Conti (1726–9 February 1759). They had three children: (i) a daughter (July 1745, Château de Saint-Cloud – 14 December 1745, Château de Saint-Cloud); (ii) Louis Philippe Joseph d’Orléans (Château de Saint-Cloud, 13 April 1747 – executed 6 November 1793, Paris), Duc de Chartres (1752), later Duc d’Orléans (1785), changed his name to Philippe Égalité (1792); and (iii) Louise Marie Thérèse Bathilde d'Orléans (9 July 1750, Château de Saint-Cloud – 10 January 1822, Paris). Following the death of the sitter's wife, he had a number of mistresses, including Étiennette Le Marquis, with whom he had three children: (i) Louis Étienne d'Orléans, (21 January 1759 – 24 July 1825), Count-abbé of Saint-Phar; (ii) Louis Philippe d'Orléans, (7 July 1761 – 13 June 1829), Count-abbé of Saint-Albin; and (iii) Marie Étiennette Perrine d'Auvilliers, (7 July 1761 -?), who married François-Constantin, Count of Brossard, a dragoon regiment officer. In July 1766, the sitter met marquise de Montesson (see next entry). Following the death of her husband in 1769, he sought to marry her, but Louis XV initially denied permission, as the sitter's eldest son was opposed. The king finally consented in December 1772, with the condition that the marriage would be a morganatic wedding, such that the Marquise of Montesson would never become Duchess of Orléans or succeed to any other Orléans titles. The couple wed on 23 April 1773 at Chaussee d'Antin. See also the below listing "2 Copies of Monseigneur le Duc d'Orléans," and the related discussion showing there were actually at least three (and most likely four) signature copies.

"Marquise de Montesson," pastel on paper mounted on canvas, oval, approximately 31 1/2" x 24 3/8" (80 x 62 cm). Unlocated. {"1 Mme la Marquise de Montesson."} {"In 1782 [sic], I spent some time at Raincy having been invited by the Duc d’Orléans, father of Philippe-Egalité, to paint portraits of Mme de Montesson and himself." - Letter IX -- (VLB later says she was close to her first confinement, so this was late 1779 or very early 1780.)} Charlotte-Jeanne Béraud de La Haye de Riou (4 October 1738, Paris – 6 February 1806) was married on 11 October 1757 to a seventy-year-old widower, Jean Baptiste, Marquis of Montesson (1687-1769). In July 1766, she met Louis Philippe, duc d'Orléans, who sought to marry her after her husband's death in 1769. They finally gained consent from Louis XV to marry with the condition that it be a morganatic wedding (i.e., no title for her). They married on 23 April 1773 at Chaussee d'Antin. VLB prepared a "copy of Mme la Marquise de Montesson," pastel, oval,  31 1/2" x 24 3/4" (80 x 63 cm), originally intended for the duc's chamberlain, marquis de Roncherolles, the copy being acquired by the Louvre in 2014. Baillio (2015) , p. 215 (color). [There were also many copies by others of VLB's portrait and copy of Mme de Montesson. Marie-Amélie of France commissioned Eugène Goyet to paint a copy after VLB, which is at Versailles. (Olivier Blanc provided this photograph.) Olivier also located an engraving after VLB. Jana Talkenberg provided yet another copy after VLB, by Joseph Albrier (1791-1863), oil on canvas, 45 x 30 cm, prepared in 1840 from a painting from Tripier-Lefranc which was believed to be by VLB. [See also a related pastiche, wrongly called Lady Blessington.]

{"2 Copies of Monseigneur le Duc d’Orléans."} A document conserved at Fondation Custodia in Paris, together with additional information, allowed Xavier Salmon in Baillio (2015), p. 214 to conclude that VLB was paid to prepare seven paintings of the duc d’Orléans and marquise de Montesson, including two original pastels prepared from sittings, listed above, and five copies. The copies generally show the face to be well executed, though less care is taken with regard to the clothing. The copies were: (1) copy of Mme de Montesson, discussed in previous listing. (2) "copy of Louis Philippe, Duc d’Orléans," pastel on paper mounted on canvas, oval, 31 1/2" x 24" (80.1 x 60.9 cm), originally intended for the duc's chamberlain, marquis de Roncherolles, which was acquired by the Louvre in 2014. This copy only shows the insignia of Saint-Esprit, omitting the insignias of the Saint-Esprit (Holy Spirit), and the Toison d’or (Golden Fleece). Baillio (1982), p. 38 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 213 (color). (3) "copy of Louis Philippe, Duc d’Orléans," oil on canvas, oval, 31 7/8" x 25 3/8" (81 x 64.5 cm). Versailles. Baillio (2015), p. 214 (color). VLB shows the three insignias from the formal portrait: the Saint-Esprit (Holy Spirit), la Toison d’or (Golden Fleece) and Saint-Louis. Baillio (2015), p. 213 (color). (4) "copy of Louis Philippe, Duc d’Orléans," oil on canvas, oval, 28 3/8" x 22 7/8" (72 x 58 cm). Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 214 (color). VLB shows the three insignias from the formal portrait: the Saint-Esprit (Holy Spirit), la Toison d’or (Golden Fleece) and Saint-Louis. Baillio (2015), p. 213 (color). (5) a smaller unlocated oil copy, most likely of the duc.

{"2 Copies of the large portrait of Queen Marie Antoinette for M. and Mme de Vergennes."}

{"1 Mme de Vannes."} Louis de Carmontelle made a portrait of this lady.

"Mme la Comtesse de Tournon," unlocated. {"1 Mme la Comtesse de Tournon."} Rose Marie Hélène de Tournon, younger cousin of prince de Soubise. In 1778 she was widowed when her first husband, Comte Adolphe du Barry (see VLB’s list for 1773), was killed in a duel. She then married a cousin who shared her maiden name, M. de Tournon, marquis de Claveyron. She died in 1785. [Identified by Olivier Blanc, who also provided an engraving after VLB’s painting.]

1779 "Alexandre Marie Leonor de Saint-Mauris, prince de Montbarrey," pastel, oval, 32 1/4" x 24 3/8" (80.3 x 64.2 cm). Musée National du Château de Versailles, L’Oeil, Jun 1993; Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006); Baillio (2015), P. 214 (color). {"1 Le Prince de Montbarrey."} VLB also painted this sitter in 1776, perhaps in oil.

1779 "Innocence Taking Refuge in the Arms of Justice," pastel, Musée d’Angers. {Historical Paintings: "1 Innocence takes refuge in the arms of Justice."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1783 at the Salon de la Correspondance.] Thanks to Angela Demutskiy for locating a color image.

1779? "Head of a Woman." [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1779 at the Salon de la Correspondance.]

1779 "Baron de Breteuil," oil on canvas, oval, 28 3/4" x 22 7/8", Musée National du Château de Versailles. [In 1789, VLB lists a large portrait of Marie Antoinette that she executed for the Baron de Breteuil. However, she didn’t list or mention a portrait of him.]

177? "Rose Bertin," oil on canvas, oval, 25 1/2" x 21 1/2" (65 x 54 cm), signed at left: LeBrun. Photo from Audap & Mirabaud auction house, which offered the painting for sale on November 21, 2014.  Marie-Jeanne Rose Bertin (1747-1813) was a French milliner, recommended to Marie Antoinette by princess de Conti and princess de Lamballe. [Biographical information courtesy of Olivier Blanc.]

1780

1780 "Marie Françoise Lesould," oil on canvas, oval, 28 3/4" x 23 1/4" (73 x 59 cm), signed at right: Mde Le Brun / 1780. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Orléans. {"1 Mme Lessout."} Baillio (2015), p. 125 (color). Marie Françoise Lesould (1751-28 July 1810, Paris) was the youngest of four daughters of Jean-Baptiste Louis Devilly Démarchais, inspector of wines, and his wife, Marie Nicole Dubrayl (d. 1778). In 1767, she married an attorney, Robert Marlot André (1730-1768), bearing him a son. After she was widowed, she remarried, in 1772, to Alexis Lesould (d. 1812), a merchant of fabric and lace.

{"1 Large picture of Marie-Antoinette."} The Katalog der Gemäldegalerie "Porträtgalerie zur Geschichte Österreichs von 1400 bis 1800," Wien 1982, Kunsthistorisches Museum, reports that this is oil on canvas, 273 x 193.5 cm, inscribed Peint par Mde le Brun agée de 22 ans, en 1780. The picture was painted in 1778 and sent in February 1779 to Vienna. She painted two copies that are in Versailles, and smaller replicas are in the museums of Troyes and Dijon and in an American private collection. The original sketch for this painting is in a private collection as well.

{"1 The same."}

{"4 Mme de Verdun, her mother, her sister-in-law and her husband."} {"The day my daughter was born [Feb 1780]...my oldest friend, Mme de Verdun, came to see me in the morning." - Letter IV} Anne Catherine Le Preudhomme de Chatenoy, from the family de Lorraine. Daughter of Nicolas François comte de Chatenoy and Françoise de Barbarat de Marizot. In 1777, she married Jean Jacques Marie Verdun (or de Verdun), fermier général depuis 1781 and honorary superintendent of finances for comte d’Artois. {Biographical information from Olivier Blanc.} VLB also lists portraits for this sitter for 1776, 1779, 1782, and this 1780 listing. Dorotheum suggested that some of the later paintings were merely copies of an earlier portrait.

ca. 1780 "Portrait of a Gentleman, Presumably the Brother of Comtesse de Verdun," oil on canvas, 25 1/2" x 21 1/4", auctioned as by VLB in 1989, and by Sotheby's January 30, 2014. [Originally supplied by Olivier Blanc.] Sotheby's stated that Joseph Baillio proposed the identification, and Sotheby's stated that the sitter was believed to be the brother of: "Anne Catherine Le Preudhomme de Chatenoy, Comtesse de Verdun (circa 1741-1822). Though little is known of her immediate family, they all belonged to the influential circle of the Comte d' Artois, brother of King Louis XVI. The Comtesse married Jean Jacques Marie, Comte de Verdun in 1777, a wealthy tax farmer (fermier général). Though unrecorded in VLB's personal records, this portrait, along with portraits of the Comte and Comtesse de Verdun were illustrated and sold together in the 1928 Hôtel Drouot auction of the collection of a family descendant."

1780-81 "Louise-Charlotte Le Tellier, Baronne de Montesquiou-Fézensac," oval, pastel on paper mounted on canvas, private collection, 27 3/4" x 21 7/8" (70.5 x 55.5 cm). Baillio (2015), p. 216 (color) (Cat. 87). {"1 Mme la Baronne de Montesquiou."} Louise-Charlotte Françoise Le Tellier de Louvois-Courtenvaux de Montmirail de Creuzy (born in Paris on 26 June 1765; died in Bessé sur Braye, 29 May 1835). She was a daughter of the marquis de Montmirail (1734-1765) and Charlotte Bénigne le Ragois de Bretonvilliers. On 11 November 1781, she married Pierre de Montesquiou Fézensac (30 September 1764, Paris - 4 August 1834, Castle Courtanvaux (Bessé-sur-Braye)), whom VLB lists for 1782 as "Le Baron de Montesquiou." The sitter became gouvernante des enfants de Napoléon sous l'Empire. VLB painted her husband in 1782. There is also a very unusual full profile of this sitter, said to be by VLB (and supported by what appears to be an engraving).

{"1 Mme de Montaudran."} Perhaps Charlotte Louise Masson de Malboue, daughter of a banker, who in 1762 married Louis Joseph de Mondran (b. 1731). They lived in rue de Cléry, and owned the castle of Breuilpont. [Suggested by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mme Foulquier."}

{"2 Mme Genty."} Olivier Blanc believes this to be Louise-Elisabeth Collet, daughter ot the Secrétaire des commandements de l’Infante Marie, and ex chargé d’affaires in Parma (Italy). On 15 May 1775 she married, in Versailles, to Antoine-Philippe Gentil who was "premier valet de chambre de la garde du robe du roi". Quoted in Mme Campan’s Mémories. [For comparison, the Swedish painter Hall painted a portrait of "Mme Gentil de Saint-Alphonse" in 1782. (This painting was misidentified at one time as a VLB painting of Princess de Lamballe.]

{"1 La Duchesse de Mazarin."} {"During my pregnancy I had painted the Duchesse de Màzarin..." - Letter IV} Probably Louise-Jeanne de Durfort de Duras, 1735-81, only daughter of the duc de Duras and Charlotte-Antoinette Mazarini. She was a duchess in her own right, inheriting the title from her mother. Her daughter married Honore IV Grimaldi, prince of Monaco.

1780 "Madame de Saint Huberty," oil on canvas. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006), has also identified a pastel version, oval, 78 x 63 cm, signed and dated lower right: Mde LeBrun 1780. Musée Municipal, Saint-Germain-en-Laye (as of 2 Nov. 2011, on long-term loan to Musée-Promenade of Marlyleroi/Louveciennes). {"Mme Saint-Huberti not only possessed a superb voice but was also a truly great actress." - Letter VIII} Anne-Antoinette-Cécile Clavel (15 December 1756, Strasbourg-22 July 1812, London) was a celebrated soprano, c. 1774-1790. On 10 September 1775, she married to Claude-Philippe Croisilles de Saint-Huberty, who turned out to be a gambler and wife-beater. In January 1781, Antoinette was able to obtain an annulment. On 29 December 1790, at Castel San Pietro, near Mendrisio, Switzerland, she secretly married comte de Launay d’Antraigues (25 December 1753, Montpellier – 22 July 1812, London). The couple were murdered by a servant. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

1780 "Venus Binding the Wings of Cupid," pastel; Hôtel Drouot, Paris. Engraving of this painting shown in The Exceptional Woman by Mary D. Sheriff. {"1 Venus binding the wings of Love."} {"The day my daughter was born [Feb 1780], I was still in the studio, trying to work on my Venus Binding the Wings of Cupid in the intervals between labour pains." - Letter IV} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1783 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.]

1780 "Peace Bringing Back Abundance," oil on canvas, 40 3/8" x 52 1/8" (103 x 133 cm), signed and dated lower center: Mde Le Brun. f 1780. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Burlington, Dec 1981, p. 741; Art in America, Nov 1982, p. 76; Baillio (1982), p. 42 (b&w); Baillio (2016), p. 75 (color); Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 34 (color). {"1 Peace brings back Plenty."} VLB’s reception piece to the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, May 31, 1783. See the Baillio (1982) description. Preparatory studies are also extant. One is: 1779-80 " Study of a head for Peace - preliminary study for Peace Restoring Abundance," black and colored chalks on cream paper, 18 7/8" x 16" (47.9 x 40.5 cm). Private collection, Paris. Burlington, Dec 1981, cover; Connaissance des Arts, 364:87, Jun 1982 (color); L’Oeil Jun 1993, p. 23 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 132 (color). Another is: "Study of a head for Abudance - preliminary study for Peace Restorying Abundance," pastel and black chalk on paper, 17 3/4" x 18 7/8" (45 x 48 cm), private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 132 (color).

ca. 1780-81 "La reine Marie-Antoinette dans le parc de Versailles," black chalk and stump heightened with white chalk on grey-blue paper, 23 1/8" x 15 7/8" (58.7 x 40.3 cm),  L’Oeil, Jun/Jul 1983, p. 33; Baillio (2015), p. 28; Baillio (2016), p. 24. [Sold for $183,330 on 5/30/88.]

1781

{"1 Head of a young girl smelling a rose."} Half-length, pastel, unlocated. [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1781 at the Salon de la Correspondance.]

{"1 Mme Young."}

{"1 M. le Comte de Cossé."} François Hyacinthe Thimoléon [elsewhere Hyacinthe Hugues Timoléon], comte de Cossé, neveu de maréchal de Brissac (1746-1813). In 1771 he married Mlle de Wignancourt (d. 1778). In 1784 he remarried, to Françoise Dorothée d’Orléans Rothelin (d. 1818). He became duc de Cossé par brevet in 1784, maréchal de camp in 1788, liutenant général in 1791. [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1781 at the Salon de la Correspondance.] [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

"Ernestine Fredérique, Princess de Croy" {"1 Mme la Princesse de Crouy."} Oil on canvas, oval, 74 x 60 cm. National Museum, Stockholm. Donated in 1792 from the private collection of King Gustav III. Lived 1743-1803.

"Ernestine Fredérique, Princess de Croy" Croy’s castle, Dülmen, Westfalia, Germany. VLB only listed one painting of the sitter, but the pose of the sitter is very similar between this painting and the one in Stockholm.

{"1 Mme de Saint-Alban."} Mlle Marie Anne Laché de Saint-Albin born at Saint-Malo, the well known mistress of Radix de Sainte-Foix, friend of VLB, who was exiled to London. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.] [In a 1980 article, Joseph Baillio indicated that he thought the sitter’s name was Mme de Saint-Auban.] Also listed in 1789.

1781 "Monsieur Landry de Saint Aubin," oil on canvas, 36" x 29," Private collection. Art News, 16 May 1931, supp p. 49; Baillio (1982), p. 21 (color); Art Journal, 42:4:335-8, Winter 1982. {"1 M. de Landry."} Etienne Nicolas Landry de Saint Aubin, dates unknown. His wife was Marie Adelaide, née Lepeu. See the Baillio (1982) description.

1781-82 "Self Portrait" (aux rubans cerise), oil on canvas, 25 1/2" x 21 1/4" (64.8 x 54 cm), signed lower right: L. E. Vigée / Le Brun. Kimbell Art Museum, Ft. Worth, Texas. Baillio (1982), frontispiece (color); The Sweetness of Life (color); museum slide; Baillio (2015), p. 83 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 81 (color)  {"2 Self-portraits."} Per Baillio (1982), two true copies are known: oil on panel, shown mistakenly reversed in L’Oeil, Mar 1981, p. 37 (color). The other, signed L. Vigée / Le Brun, was illustrated by André Blum, Madame Vigée-Lebrun peintre des grandes dames du XVIIIe siécle, 1919, p. 18. Baillio (1982), p. 47, cites and details many anonymous copies, including ovals. [One oval, probably anonymous, appeared in Art News, 3/30/1947, p. 11.] See the Baillio (1982) description.

{"1 Study of a head for M. Le Pelletier de Morfontaine."} {"M. Le Pelletier de Morfontaine, for a long time Prévôt de Marchands under Louis XVI..." - Pen Portraits}

{"1 Study of a head for M. Proult."}

{"3 Study of a head for M. de Cossé."}

1782 "Comte de Provence" {"1 Monsieur, the King’s brother."} oil on canvas, 29" x 23" (73.5 x 58.5 cm), signed lower right: Lse LeBrun f 1782. Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 153 (color). Louis Stanislas Xavier de France (17 November 1755, Palace of Versailles – 16 September 1824, Louvre Palace), the Comte de Provence, later Louis XVIII. [Color image provided by Jana Talkenberg.] VLB also listed paintings of him from 1776 and 1778.

{"1 A copy of the same."}

{"1 Mme la Duchesse de Chaulnes."} Marie d’Albert de Luynes. Louis de Carmontelle made a portrait of this lady.

{"1 Mlle Dumoley."} Geneviève Sophie Le Couteulx de la Noraye, wife of Jacques-Jean Le Couteulx du Molay. VLB also painted the sitter in 1788. {The "Mlle" is apparently a mistake for "Mdm," since the following listing is for her son.} [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

“Jacques-Félix Le Couteulx du Molay,” pastel. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800(Unicorn Press 2006). {"1 M. Dumoley, her son."} Jacques Félix Le Coulteux du Molay, son of Jacques-Jean Le Couteulx du Molay and Geneviève Sophie Le Couteulx de la Noraye (whom VLB painted in 1788). He was born Paris 29 June 1779 and died in Dijon 1 April 1812. In 1804 he married Alexandrine Sophie Pauline Le Couteulx; the couple had three children.Préfet de la Côte d’Or, baron de l’Empire. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

1781 "Mme Du Barry," oil on canvas, laid down on board, 33 7/8" x 26" (86 x 66 cm), Private Collection. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Nov 1980, p. 159 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 56 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 169 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 77 (color). {"1 La Comtesse Dubarry."} {"The first [portrait] was between a bust and a three-quarter length painting, with her in a house gown and wearing a straw hat." - Letter X} Goodden, in The Sweetness of Life, p. 67, dates this to 1781, because the hat "matches the description of a hat in a bill sent to Madame du Barry that year by Rose Bertin, the marchande de modes." Letter X indicates this portrait was painted on the same trip as the portrait with a garland, and that painting is signed and dated 1782, so it is possible that this painting was done in 1782. VLB erred when she wrote 1786 in Letter X, and also erred by duplicating this on her 1787 list as "1 The same, in her robe." An autograph copy, 1781, "Mme Du Barry," oil on panel, 27 1/4" x 20 1/4" (69.2 x 51.4 cm), is found in the the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Museum website.

{"1 Sketch for my painting of Juno."}

{"1 Venus, study of a head."}

1781 "Juno Borrowing the Girdle of Venus," oil on canvas, 19 1/4" x 15 1/8" (49 x 38.5 cm). Private collection, New York. Baillio (2015), p. 134 (color). {Historical Paintings: "1 Juno asking for Venus’ girdle."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1783 at the Salon de la Correspondance, and also the same year at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] This portrait was displayed in the 2015 Paris Exhibition.

{"1 Mme d’Harvelay."} Micault d’Harvelay, born Mlle Nettine, the daughter of the Vicomte and Victomtesse de Nettine, of Brussels. Widowed from M. Micault d’Harvelay, she married Calonne in England in 1787. VLB had painted her sister, Mme de La Borde, in 1775. A miniature portrait by Louis-Marie Sicardi is in the Louvre. [Information from Olivier Blanc and Kevin Kelly; image from Olivier.]

ca. 1780-83 "A lady," oil on canvas, 31 1/2" x 25." Auctioned at Christie’s, Paris, 24 June 2004. [Could this be Mme d’Harvelay?.]

{"2 Mlle de Laborde."} [VLB wrote that as she prepared to flee France in 1789, "I also refused to paint Mlle de Laborde (now Duchesse de Noailles), who was brought to me by her father; she was scarcely sixteen and quite charming..." - Letter XII. Perhaps these two portraits of 1781 were of the same girl at the age of 8, or perhaps were of an older sister.]

{"1 Mlle Devaron."}

"Comtesse de Moreton de Chabrillan," oil on canvas, 29" x 23 1/4" (68.6 x 50.8 cm), signed Mde L. E. Vigée Le Brun (per sales list, verify). Private collection. {"1 Mme de Moreton."} The wife of Jacques Henri Sébastian César de Moreton de Chabrillan (1752-?). [Identified by Olivier Blanc] Painting exhibited 14 May to 6 June, 1926, Paris. The painting was also reproduced as an engraving.

{"1 Copy of M. de Moreton."}

{"1 Mme de la Porte."} M. and Mme de la Porte du Theil lived on quai de Conti no6. A portrait of a Mme de la Porte, née Caumartin, was painted by Nattier. [Research by Olivier Blanc.]

1781 "Marie Thérèse Louise de Savoie-Carignan, Princess de Lamballe," pastel, Private Collection, Paris. A color detail is also available. [Images from Olivier Blanc]. {"3 La Princesse de Lamballe."} {"During the same period I also painted a portrait of the Princess de Lamballe." - Letter V} Born 1749. She was married to Louis Stanislas, the Prince de Lamballe (1747-68), the brother of Louise Marie Adélaïde de Penthièvre (the future Duchesse de Chartres). The Princess de Lamballe was widowed at the age of 19. A friend of Marie Antoinette, she was killed 3 Sept 1792.

1782 "Princess de Lamballe," oil on canvas, oval, 78 x 64 cm. Signed and dated lower right: Lse. Vigee LeBrun f 1782. {"3 La Princesse de Lamballe."} {"During the same period I also painted a portrait of the Princess de Lamballe." - Letter V} Thanks to Charles Vatinel and Olivier Blanc for reporting that this painting was published in preparation for auction 7 November 2011 by Audap & Mirabaud, Paris. Previously, Olivier Blanc had located a copy that had been reproduced in miniature by Josep Boze, which is now in the collections of the Louvre. Claudia Solacini had previously located a print, "Princess de Lamballe," which is very similar, though missing the hat. Perhaps the print was produced from this portrait, or perhaps VLB separately prepared a version without the hat.

1781 "Princess de Lamballe," oil on canvas, oval, 31 7/8" x 25 1/4" (81 x 64 cm). {"3 La Princesse de Lamballe."}

1781 "Love Testing an Arrow in the Presence of Venus," oil on canvas. An image tentatively titled "Woman and Love" may perhaps match this item. Illustrated by André Blum, Madame Vigée-Lebrun peintre des grandes dames du XVIIIe siécle, 1919.

1781 "Marie Antoinette," oil on canvas, oil, Collection of the Hesse Family. Haldane Macfall, Louise-Élisabeth VIGÉE-LEBRUN (2015), p. 34. [Thanks to Jana Talkenberg.]

1782

{"1 Madame, the King’s sister."} Elisabeth-Philippe-Marie-Hélène, one of two sisters of Louis XVI, born 1764, executed 1794. [See also the portraits listed for 1783.]

{"1 Copy of the same."}

1782 "Yolande Gabrielle Martine de Polastron, Duchesse de Polignac," oil on canvas, 36 3/8" x 28 7/8" (92.2 x 73.3 cm), signed and dated lower left: Lse Le Brun 1782. Musée National du Château de Versailles. Antiques, Nov 1967, p. 708 (b&w); Le Jardin des Arts, No. 31 (1957), cover (color); Baillio (2015), p. 171 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 79 (color); Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 36 (color). {"1 Mme la Duchess de Polignac."} {"Yolande Martins de Polastron, born around 1749, married Comte Jules de Polignac in 1767; he became Duke in 1780. Mme, Duchesse de Polignac, intimate friend of Queen Marie Antoinette and governess of her children, died in Vienna in 1793." - Chapter XII, Footnote I} For her 1787 list, VLB includes a painting, "The Duchesse de Polignac with a straw hat," which is a mistake as the painting was made in 1782 and already accounted for by this listing.

1782 "Yoland Gabrielle Martine de Polastron, Duchesse de Polignac," pastel, 46" x 35", auctioned at La Castellana, Madrid, Spain. {"1 A copy of the same."} It is unclear whether this pastel was intended as a study for the oil listed above, or whether it was intended as "a copy of the same."

{"1 Le Baron de Montesquiou."} Pierre de Montesquiou Fézensac (30 September 1764, Paris - 4 August 1834, Castle Courtanvaux (Bessé-sur-Braye)), son of marquis Anne Élisabeth Pierre de Montesquiou Fézensac (17 October 1739, Paris - 30 December 1798, Paris), maréchal de Camp et député de la noblesse aux Etats-Généraux, and his wife, Jeanne Marie Hocquart de Montfermeil (born 1743). On 11 November 1781, the sitter married Louise-Charlotte Le Tellier (whom VLB lists in 1780 as "Le Baronne de Montesquiou."). VLB also painted the sitter's sister and brother-in-law, “M. and Mme. de Lastic,” who appear on the list for 1779. VLB also has a listing for 1779 for “M. and Mme. de Montesquiou,” who are presumably this sitter's parents (Marquis and Marquise de Montesquiou), or possibly his younger brother and his wife.

1782 "Anne Catherine Le Preudhomme de Chatenoy, Comtesse de Verdun," oil on canvas, 24 3/4" x 20 7/8" (63 x 53 cm), private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 17 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 7 (color). A photo of an oval version was also found, possibly at the Witt Library. Another copy, oil on canvas, (66.4 x 53.3 cm), was auctioned as "VLB and Studio" by Dorotheum Auction House on 13 April 2011.  {"1 Mme de Verdun."} {"...she was my first friend, and remains to this day my closest..." - Pen Portraits} Anne Catherine Le Preudhomme de Chatenoy, from the family de Lorraine. Daughter of Nicolas François comte de Chatenoy and Françoise de Barbarat de Marizot. In 1777, she married Jean Jacques Marie Verdun (or de Verdun), fermier général depuis 1781 and honorary superintendent of finances for comte d’Artois. {Biographical information from Olivier Blanc.} VLB also lists portraits for this sitter for 1776, 1779, 1780, and this 1782 listing. Dorotheum suggested that some of the later paintings were merely copies of an earlier portrait. (We show an unrelated painting for 1779.)

1785? "Comtesse de Chastenay," oil on canvas, oval, 25 1/2" x 21 1/2," Museo de Arte de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Baillio (1982), p. 58 (b&w). {"1 Mme de Chatenay."} [Baillio noted that many (anonymous?) copies of this portrait exist. One was shown in Connaissance des Arts, 352:77, Jun 1981 (color), where it was misidentified as Mme Adélaïde de la Briche (VLB’s list, 1788).] Catherine Louise dHerbouville (1748-1830), the wife of Erard Louis Guil Comte de Chastenay de Lanty (1748-1830). See the Baillio (1982) description.

1782 "Prince Heinrich of Prussia," oil on panel, oval, 28 3/4" x 23 1/8" (73 x 58.5 cm), private collection, France. Baillio (1982), p. 41 (b&w); Baillio (2016), p. 210 (color). {"3 Prince Henry of Prussia."} {"The Comtesse de Sabran first introduced me to Prince Henry of Prussia..." - Pen Portraits} Friedrich Heinrich Ludwig (18 January 1726, Berlin – 3 August 1802, Rheinsberg) was a son of Friedrich Wilhelm I and Sophia Dorothea of Hanover. On 25 June 1752, Henry married Princess Wilhelmina of Hesse-Kassel in Charlottenburg, but they had no children. The sitter lived in the shadow of his older brother, Frederick the Great, though he was proposed in 1786 to serve as monarch for the United States of America during the Prussian scheme.

1782 "Self Portrait (with straw hat)," oil on panel, 37 3/8" x 27 1/8" (95 x 68.5 cm), signed and dated lower right: L.se Le Brun / 1782, Private Collection, Switzerland. [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1782 at the Salon de la Correspondance, and in 1783 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jan 1982 (b&w); L’Oeil, Jun/Jul 1983, p. 32 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 11 (color). An autograph copy exists: oil on canvas, 38-1/2" x 27-1/2," National Gallery, London. The National Gallery Companion Guide, by Erika Langmuir, 1994 (color). {"I was so delighted and inspired by [Ruben’s Chapeau de Paille] that I completed a self portrait whilst in Brussels in an effort to achieve the same effect. I painted myself wearing a straw hat with a feather and a garland of wild flowers, and holding a palette in one hand."- Letter VI}

1782 "Princess Izabele Elzbiete Anne Teofile Czartoryska, Comtess de Chabrillan," oil on canvas, 29" x 23 1/4" (73.5 x 59 cm), signed: Mde L. E. Vigée Le Brun. Unlocated. No reproductions known. ["...Princess Lubomirska, whom I had known in Paris at the time when I painted the portrait of her nephew in Amour de la gloire." - Chap. XII] Izabele Elzbiete Anne Teofile Czartoryska (21 May 1736 - 11 November 1816, Vienna), a daughter of August Aleksander Czartoryski (9 November 1697, Warsaw – 4 April 1782, Warsaw) and Maria Zofia Sieniawska (1698 – 21 May 1771, Warsaw). She was the sister of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski, whom VLB painted in 1793. They were cousins of King Stanislas Poniatowski. On 9 June 1753, the sitter married Stanislaw Lubomirski (25 December 25, Łancut - 12 August 1782, Łancut). The couple had four daughters: (1) Elżbieta Lubomirska (1755–1783); (2) Aleksandra Lubomirska (1760–1836), who on 2 June 1776 would marry Stanisław Kostka Potock; (3) Konstancja Małgorzata Lubomirska (1761–1840), who in 1782 would marry Seweryn Rzewuski; and (4) Julia Lubomirska (1764 – 22 August 1794, Kraków), who in 1785 would marry Jan Nepomucen Potocki (8 March 1761 – 23 December 1815). Lacking a son, the couple raised a distant relative, Prince Henryk Lubomirski (15 Sep 1777-1850), the son of Prince Jozef Lubomirski and Ludwika Sosnowska. Also see a painting for the princess listed under 1793.

ca. 1782-83 "Self Portrait in a Straw Hat," black chalk, stumping and charcoal, on paper, 18 7/8" x 14 1/2" (48 x 37 cm), private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 85; Baillio (2016), p. 82.

1782 "Julie Le Brun," pastel, 10” x 9.3”, National Museum, Stockholm. [This is possibly the pastel referenced in Baillio (1982) as formerly owned by Mme Weill, Paris.] Jeanne-Julie-Louis Le Brun, the artist’s daughter, 1780-1820. Sold by Sotheby's Paris, 27 June 2002, lot 71. A non-autograph inscription identifies the child as Julie, but Angela Demutskiy questions how this light-haired toddler could be Julie, who was nicknamed Brunette.

1782 "Mme Du Barry," (knee length), signed and dated bottom right: L. Vigée Le Brun 1782, Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Nov 1980, p. 158 (b&w); The Sweetness of Life (b&w); color image from museum website. {"In 1786 [sic] I went to Louveciennes for the first time, having promised to paint Mme Dubarry...the second [portrait] showed her dressed in white satin, holding a garland in one hand and one of her arms resting on a pedestal." - Letter X} [VLB wrote that an owner had the face overpainted to add rouge, which was apparently never removed.] The painting is dated 1782, so VLB erred when she wrote 1786 in Letter X. She didn’t list this painting for 1782, mistakenly recording it in 1787, as a full-length (instead of knee length). [Attribution by Joseph Baillio.]

1782 "Comtesse de Provence," oil on canvas, oval, 31 3/4" x 25 1/2" (80.7 x 64.8 cm), signed and dated: Lse Le Brun f. 1782. Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 154 (color). Image provided by Olivier Blanc. A variant, oil on canvas, oval, appeared as a black and white photo from Witt Library. A pastel version, 54cm x 45cm, is published in vicomte Tony Henri Auguste de Reiset, Joséphine de Savoie, comtesse de Provence, 1753-1810, d’après des documents inédits, Paris, Émile-Paul frères, 1913. {Only listed for 1783.} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1783 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale. Also exhibited then was a portrait of her husband, the Comte de Provence. VLB painted him on many occasions prior to that exhibition.] Marie-Joséphine-Louise de Savoie, 1753-1810.

"Self Portrait," pastel, 26cm x 32cm. Formerly owned by Bartholt Suermondt, founder of the Suermondt-Ludwig Museum, Aachen, Germany. [Image and information courtesy of Fritz Erckens.]

1783

1783 "Marquise de La Guiche as a Milkmaid," oil on canvas, Marquis de La Guiche. Current location unknown (last recorded at Château de Chaumont, Saint-Bonnet-de-Joux, France); image from the Witt Library. {"1 Mme la Marquis de La Guiche."} Jeanne-Marie de Clermont-Montoison, who in 1777 married Charles-Amable, comte (later marquis) de La Guiche de Sevignon (guillotined in 1794). She died in 1822 when her castle of Nuis burned. They had a son, Louis Henry Casimir (1777-1841), and a daughter Henriette. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.] VLB’s list for 1788 includes "1 Mme de La Guiche, as a milkmaid", no doubt refering to this painting. However, Baillio (1982) says the painting was exhibited in 1783 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale. The 1788 list is therefore probably an erroneous duplication.

1783 "Madame Catherine-Noële Grand (later Princess de Talleyrand-Périgord)," oil on canvas, oval, 36 1/4" x 28 1/2" (92.1 x 72.4 cm), signed and dated at left on the sofa’s frame: L. E. Le Brun 1783. Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. Metropolitan Museum Bulletin, ns 10:64, Oct 1951; Antiques, Nov 1967, p. 708 (b&w); Encyclopedia of Visual Art, p. 707 (color); Baillio (1982), p. 48 (b&w); The Sweetness of Life (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 173 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 91 (color). {"1 Mme Grant."} {"...Mme Grant, a very pretty woman whose portrait I painted before the Revolution..." - Pen Portraits} Catherine Noële Verlée (called Worlée) (1762-1835). She was born in India, where her father was a French official. She married and divorced George Francis Grand, and in 1802 married Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand, Duc de Périgord, later Prince de Bénévent. See the Baillio (1982) description.

ca. 1780-83 "Young woman," oil on canvas, oval, 21 1/2" x 18" (54.5 x 45.5 cm).Musée du Louvre, Paris. Baillio (2015), p. 129 (color). Previously attributed to Fragonard; Baillio considers this unfinished painting a work by VLB. Baillio is uncertain whether it was meant as a character study or an actual portrait of a woman, but he notes the resemblence of the woman to Mme Grand, above.

1783 "Madame Catherine-Noële Worlée Grand, later Princess de Talleyrand-Périgord," oil on canvas, oval. Vigée LeBrun (Doubleday, 1903). [VLB only listed one portrait of Mdm Grand for 1783 (see above), but this variant has always been attributed to her.]

{"1 La Landgrave de Salm."} Jeanne-Françoise de Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (?-1790). In 1781 she married Frédéric III Fürst Salm-Kyrbourg (1745-1794). They had four children, one of whom survived: Frédéric Ernest Othon (1785-?), the future Frédéric V. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

1783 "Mme la Maréchale de Mailly," oil on canvas, oval, 29" x 23 1/4" (73.5 x 59 cm), signed and dated at lower left: Lse Le Brun f. 1783, private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 172 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 92 (color). {"1 Mme la Maréchale de Mailly."} Blanche Charlotte Marie Félicité de Narbonne-Pelet, maréchale-comtesse de Mailly (1761-1840). She was a daughter of François Raymond Joseph Herménegilde Amalric, vicomte de Narbonne-Pelet and his second wife, Lucrèce Pauline Marie Anne de Ricard de Brégançon. In 1780, she married Joseph Augustin, comte de Mailly, marquis d'Haucourt, who was 50 years her senior. He was promoted to marshal of France in 1783, and guillotined in 1794.

"Countess Artois," listed on Pinterest as allegedly having been found on Christie's website. {"2 Mme la Comtesse d’Artois."} Marie-Thérèse de Savoie, 31 January 1756-1805. Married 16 November 1776 to Charles Philippe, the Comte dArtois (1757-1836). He was the youngest brother of Louis XVI, and would become Charles X (1824-30). For comparison, Olivier Blanc has located a portrait by Charles Leclercq, an engraving after Drouais, and an engraving by an unknown engraver and artist.

"Countess Artois," no reproduction known. {"2 Mme la Comtesse d’Artois."} 27 1/2" x 21 1/2", sold by Christie's of London, 28 February 1913, to Levy, £210. It was described as: "In white muslin dress, with blue sash; her hair powdered and surmounted by a white muslin cap."

"Duc de Berry," oil on canvas. [? Not listed or mentioned by VLB. ?] Charles-Ferdinand d’Artois (1778-1820), the second son of the Comte d’Artois, the future Charles X. [Painting identified by Olivier Blanc.]

1783 "Diane Adélaïde de Damas D’Antigny, Comtess de Simiane," oil on canvas, 28 3/8" x 23 1/4", Musée de Dijon. Antiques, Nov 1967, p. 709 (b&w). {"2 Mme la Comtesse de Simiane."} {"...in 1783, I received a visit from M. de La Fayette; he came to my house for the sole purpose of seeing a portrait I was painting of the pretty Mme de Simiane, whom they say he was taking care of at the time..." - Pen Portraits} Lived 1761-1835. Daughter of Jacques François de Dumas, Marquis d’Antigny et de Zéphyrine Félicité de Rochechouart. Married Charles François de Damas, Comte de Simiane, in 1777.

1784 "La duchesse de Guiche," pastel on paper, two sheets joined, laid down on canvas, oval, 31 3/4" x 25 1/4" (80.5 x 64 cm), signed and dated at lower left: Mde Le Brun 1784. Private Collection, L’Oeil, Jun 1993, p. 21; Baillio (2015), p. 219 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 95 (color). {"2 Mme la Duchesse de Guiche."} The daughter of the Duc and Duchesse de Polignac, Louise Françoise Gabrielle Aglaé was born May 7, 1768. She had married on July 4, 1780 (at age 12!), to Antoine-Louis-Marie de Gramont de Guiche. VLB also painted her two daughters Aglaé Davidoff and Countess Tankerville. The duchesse de Guiche died in 1803 in a fire at Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh, Scotland. She was interned there, though in 1825 her body was returned to France. VLB does not list a painting of this sitter for 1784, so this listing is either a mistake for the 1784 painting, or refers to an unknown portrait.

1783 "Marie Antoinette ("en gaulle") or ("en chemise)," oil on canvas, 35 3/8" x 28 3/8" (89.8 x 72 cm), is in the Collection Princesse de Hesse-Darmstadt, Château de Wolfsgarten. Baillio (1982); Baillio (2015), p. 49 & 155 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 86 (color); Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 35 (color). [A copy (signature or anonymous?) oil on canvas, 36 3/4" x 31 1/8", is located at the Musée National du Château de Versailles. The National Gallery, Washington, D.C., has a copy, 36 1/2" x 28 3/4" (92.7 x 73.1 cm), that its website indicates is "after" VLB.] Other publications include: Pantheon, 1:219, Apr 1928; Antiques, Nov 1967, p. 709 (b&w); L’Oeil, Mar 1981, p. 38 (b&w), though it is uncertain which copy they represent.  {"1 Queen Marie-Antoinette with hat."} {"One in particular showed her wearing a straw hat and a dress of white muslin with the sleeves pulled neatly back. When this painting was exhibited in the Salon, the evil tongues could not resist the temptation of saying that I had painted the Queen in her underwear ..." - Letter V} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1783 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.]

1783 "Marie Antoinette ("à la rose")," oil on canvas, 46" x 35" (116.8 x 88.9 cm), Collection of Lynda and Stewart Resnick, Los Angeles. Baillio (2015), p. 18 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 89 (color). {"2 The same in full regalia."} VLB was forced to remove the above-listed painting (nicknamed "en gaulle" or "en chemise," as the dress selected by the Queen was considered scandalous by being too informal. This painting replaced it. There is also a signature copy (of lesser quality and perhaps completed with assistance from VLB's studio), oil on canvas, 44 1/2" x 34 1/4," Musée National du Château de Versailles (Petit Trianon), Amour de l’Art, 16:250, Jul 1935; La Revue des Arts, Mar 1955; Connoisseur, Am. ed. 136:31, Sept 1955; L’Oeil, Mar 1981, p. 39 (b&w); L’Oeil, Jan/Feb 1996, p. 33 (color). [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1783 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.]

1782 "Madame Elisabeth of France," Musée National du Château de Versailles; museum postcard. A variant, in Berlin Museum, shows her at a different angle, perhaps seated; Witt Library? {"2 Madame Elisabeth, the King’s sister."} Elisabeth-Philippe-Marie-Hélène, 1764-94.

1782 "Madame Elisabeth of France," oval, Private Collection (?). Art News, 49:9, Sep 1950, b&w. {"2 Madame Elisabeth, the King’s sister."} [Formerly collection of Marquise of Fitte de Soucy, then collection of comte Jacques de Bryas; then sold at Christie’s on 7 December 1991.)

{"1 Copy of same."}

? "Madame Elisabeth," oil on canvas, 28" x 21 1/4" (originally a larger oval). Musée National du Château de Versailles. Splendors of Versailles Exhibition Catalogue?; Architectural Digest, July 1998, p. 70 (tiny image). A preparatory painting, "Madame Elisabeth," oil on canvas, oval, 5 1/2" x 4 1/4", from the ancient collection of Marius Paulme, was auctioned in 1929. The Versailles painting was originally also an oval, but was cut into a rectangular shape under the reign of Louis-Philippe in the 1840s.

1782? "Madame Elisabeth," oil on canvas. [Color image provided by Jana Talkenberg.]

{"1 Mlle Lavigne."} Julie de Lavigne (1767-1832). She began her acting career under her maiden name. She then began an affair with the eldest brother of the actor, François Molé, called Molé Dallainville, which would last until his death in 1801. While she never married him, she took his name, becoming Mme Molé aîné Dallainville. She married a M. Léger, and then became Mme Molé-Léger. She was then widowed, and married a second time, to comte Albitte de Vallivon, becoming comtesse Albitte de Vallivon. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

"Marie Antoinette," oil on canvas, feigned oval, (red dress, black cap, white plume, with bayonette tear in the center of her chest), 37 3/8" x 27 1/8." Connoisseur, Aug 1938, p. 109. [A similar copy was found, but Angela feels, "The neck down to her shoulder is disproportionate, the hair line is rounded and too stark for Vigée Le Brun’s style."] {"3 Copies of the Queen with hat."}

1783-88 "Marie Antoinette," oil on canvas. Angela writes: "I can’t tell for sure if this is by Le Brun or not without seeing it up close, too much glare." {"3 Copies of the Queen with hat."}

1783-88 "Marie Antoinette," oil on canvas, 36 3/4" x 29 1/2" (93.3 x 74.8 cm), private collection. Vigée Lebrun (2015), Parkstone Int'l, ISBN 9781785250729, p. 79 (color). A similar copy after VLB, 36 1/4" x 28 3/4," was deacquisitioned from the Detroit Institute of Arts in 1992, museum slide. The Witt Library had a black and white image, Marie Antoinette, which may have been an earlier image of the Detroit work, or was perhaps an original VLB.{"4 Queen in velvet dress."} Nolhac mentioned this painting was exhibited before the 1880’s in the collection of M. Tripier Franc, "portrait of the Queen, in a velvet dress with fur, low cut in front, powdered hair, red hat with white plumes."

1786-88? "Marie Antoinette" {"4 Copies of same."}

1784 "Dauphin Louis Joseph," oil on canvas, oval. {"1 Monsieur le Dauphin."} The first Dauphin Louis-Joseph-Xavier-François, 1781-89.

{"1 Madame, the King’s daughter."}

1783 "Marie Antoinette," oil on canvas, 35 3/8" x 28 3/8," Collection of the Prince of Hesse and the Rhine.

1783? "Julie Le Brun," oval, pastel. [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1783 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.]

1783? "Portrait of Mme xxx." [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1783 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.]

1783-86? "Self Portrait," oil on canvas, 31 1/4" x 25 1/4", Fyvie Castle, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Print from Fyvie Castle (color); Burlington, Aug 1941, p. 51 (b&w). {Not listed or mentioned by VLB} The date is suggested by Lucia Cardellini, believing that VLB composed the painting after seeing Rembrandt’s Saskia’s portraits in Flanders.

1783-85 "Portrait of a Dancer," 41 3/8" x 29 1/2" (105 x 75 cm). Musée Cognacq-Jay, Paris. Revue de l’Art, 56:138, Sep 1929; Historia del ballet by Ferdinando Reyna; Brilliant Beginnings, The Youthful Works of Great Artists, Writers, and Composers. At one time this portrait was thought to represent Maríe Anne De Cupis Camargo, 1710-70, French ballet dancer, which would have meant that this was a copy from an earlier artist’s painting or engraving. Another suggestion is that it could be Mlle.Anne Heinel, a famous opera dancer based on similarities to a painting of her by Michel-Vincent Brandoin, engraved in London in 1772 by Proud ("Melle Heinel in the Character of a Sultana"). However, the clothing dates the painting to the 1780s. Another suggestion is that this is another portrait of VLB's sister-in-law Suzanne, who participated in VLB's musical evenings, and may have therefore been represented in the character of an actress and musician.

1783 "Martin van Nieuvenhove, Praying to the Madonna and Child," (after Hans Memling), oil on copper. Diptych, each 18 1/4 x 13 1/2". Said to have been painted for Mme. Adelaide, daughter of Louis XV, with a provenance through her lady in waiting. Auctioned by Wm. Doyle, New York, 1992 (illustrated in their sales catalogue).

"Study for the Head of Madonna and Child," drawing. This was identified as a VLB on the Courtauld Institute of Art website.

ca. 1783 "Eugène de Montesquiou-Fézensac," pastel on paper, 9 1/8" x 12 1/2" (23 x 31.5 cm), Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 193 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 84 (color). Rodrigue Eugène de Montesquiou-Fézensac d'Artagnan (15 August 1782, Paris - 1810, Ciudad Rodrigo), chevalier, puis de baron de l’Empire, l’aigle d’or de la Légion, une dotation de 10 000 francs, l’aigrette de colonel du 13e chasseurs. His parents were comte Anne Elisabeth Pierre de Montesquiou-Fézensac, first equerry to the comte de Provence, and Louise Charlotte Françoise Le Tellier de Louvois-Courtanvaux de Montmirail de Creuzy. In 1803, the sitter married Aline d’Harcourt d’Olonde, and they had three children. VLB listed a painting of the sitter's mother in 1780 and father in 1782.

ca. 1783 "Sleeping baby," black, white, and red chalk with stumping, on beige paper, 12 3/4" x 10 1/4" (32.5 x 26 cm), Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 191 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 83 (color). Baillio states this is possibly Eugene de Montesquiou-Fezensac.

ca. 1783 "Blue-eyed baby," pastel, 12-3/4" x 9-5/8." Collection Marquis de Lastic, Château de Parentignat. Baillio (2015), p. 192 (color). Baillio (who had previously misidentified the sitter as Louis-Charles, duc de Normandie) now identifies the baby as a member of the Lastic Sieujac family, either Amédée (1780-88), François (1783-84), or Octavie (1785-1861) de Lastic-Siejac. The parents were marquis and marquise de Lastic-Siejac. The mother, born Anne-Louise Hyacinthe Augustine de Montesquiou-Fézensac (1761-1821), was a sister of comte Anne Elisabeth Pierre de Montesquiou-Fézensac. Thus, the infant portrayed was a first cousin of Eugène de Montesquiou-Fézensac, listed above.

ca. 1783 "Sleeping baby," pastel, 9-5/8" x 12-3/4." Collection Marquis de Lastic, Château de Parentignat. Baillio (2015), p. 193 (color). Baillio (who had previously misidentified the sitter as Sophie-Helene Beatriix de France), now identifies the baby as a member of the Lastic Sieujac family, either Amédée (1780-88), François (1783-84), or Octavie (1785-1861) de Lastic-Siejac. The parents were marquis and marquise de Lastic-Siejac. The mother, born Anne-Louise Hyacinthe Augustine de Montesquiou-Fézensac (1761-1821), was a sister of comte Anne Elisabeth Pierre de Montesquiou-Fézensac. Thus, the infant portrayed was a first cousin of Eugène de Montesquiou-Fézensac, listed above.

ca. 1782-85 "Head and shoulders portrait of a baby," pastel on paper, 11 7/8" x 9 1/4" (30 x 23.3 cm), Collection of H.M. Queen Elizabeth II. Baillio (2015), p. 192 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 85 (color). (Previously attributed to VLB's father; correctly reattributed to her by Neil Jeffares.)

1784

1784 "The Comte de Vaudreuil," oil on canvas, 52" x 38 7/8" (132.1 x 98.7 cm), inscribed lower left: COMTE DE VAUDREUIL / Gd FAUCONNIER DE FRANCE / CHEVALIER DES ORDRES DU ROI / LIEUTt GÉNÉRAL ET PAIR DE FRANCE / NÉ 1740 MORT 1817. Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond, Virginia. Antiques, Jan 1968, p. 110 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 52 (b&w); Apollo, 130:23, Jul 1989, p. 23; The Sweetness of Life (b&w); museum slide; Baillio (2015), p. 161 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 96 (color). {"1 M. le Comte de Vaudreuil."} Joseph Hyacinthe François de Paule de Rigaud, Comte de Vaudreuil, 1740-1817. See the Baillio (1982) description.

"Comte de Vaudreuil," oil on canvas, 28" x 22 3/8" (71 x 58 cm). Private collection, Paris. Photo from Witt Library. {"5 Copies of same."} [VLB cites 2 half-lengths made during the Restoration, but it’s hard to believe that the sitter is 20 years older in this portrait.] [Baillio says an account of the known versions is found in the exhibition catalogue, French Painting 1774-1830.]

1784 "Marie-Gabrielle de Gramont, comtesse de Gramont Caderousse," oil on panel, 41 3/8" x 29 7/8" (105.1 x 75.9 cm), signed and dated lower right: Lse LeBrun. f. 1784. Nelson-Atkins Museum, Kansas City. Burlington, Nov 1984, xxi ; Burlington, Feb 1991, p. 154; Connaissance des Arts, 404:71; Baillio (2015), p. 29 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 113 (color). {"1 La Comtesse de Grammont-Caderousse."} Marie Gabrielle de Sinety (1761-1832), a daughter of André Louis, marquis de Sinety, and his wife, Marie Anne de Ravenel. In 1800, she married André Joseph Hippolyte, marquis and comte de Gramont Caderousse. Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1785 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.

1784 "Lady Folding a Letter (? The Comtesse de Cérès)," oil on canvas, 36" x 29" (91.4 x 73.7 cm), signed and dated on the letter: Lse Ve Le Brun / 1784. Toledo Museum of Art. Gazette des Beaux Arts, 6:63:supp 64, Feb 64; Art News, 63:26, Jan 1965 (b&w); Apollo, 81:34, Jan 1965 (b&w); Gazette des Beaux Arts, 6:65:supp 51, Feb 65 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 54 (b&w); L’Oeil, Jun 1993, p. 26 (color); Baillio (2015), p. 174 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 99 (color). {"1 Mme la Comtesse de Serré."} {... Mme de S***[Cérès], wife of D***[Du Barry], nicknamed The Rake... M. de Calonne, however, was very much in love with her. At this time she had asked me to paint her portrait." - Letter VII} Anonymous miniature copy exists. [VLB only listed two women for the year this painting is dated. While it’s possible that it represents another sitter that VLB forgot to record for this year, or that she mistakenly listed for another year, Baillio finds stylistic reasons (the still life of writing instruments is similar to that found in the portrait of Charles Alexandre de Calonne) to believe that this is indeed the portrait of the Comtesse de Cérès.] Anne Marie Thérèse de Rabaudy Montoussin (1759-1834), who in 1777 became the second wife of Comte Jean Baptiste Du Barry (1723-1794).

"Nicolas Beaujon," pastel, oval, 28" x 22-7/8" (71 cm x 58 cm). Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jan 1982, p. 24 (b&w); Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). {"1 M. de Beaujon."} Lived 1718-86, he was court banker to Louis XV. He had a massive art collection, with many pieces being acquired for him by VLB’s husband. [VLB’s Souvenirs imply her first commission for Beaujon was the grand portrait for his hospital, which she lists in 1785. Thus, this pastel may have actually been painted in 1785.] [Attribution by Joseph Baillio.]

1784 "Madame Royale and the Dauphin Louis Joseph," oil on canvas, 45 1/2" x 37 1/8" (115.5 x 94.3 cm), signed and dated lower right: L. Le Brun. f. 1784. Musée National du Château de Versailles. Chicago Art Institute Quarterly, 56:46, Autumn 1962; L’Oeil, Mar 1981, p. 40 (color); Baillio (1982), p. 50 (b&w); L’Oeil, 392:17, Mar 1988; Baillio (2015), p. 157 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 100 (color). Marie Thérèse Charlotte, Mme Royale, later the Duchesse dAngoulême, 1778-1851; and the first Dauphin Louis-Joseph-Xavier-François, 1781-89. See the Baillio (1982) description.

1785

"Nicolas Beaujon," unlocated. {"1 M. de Beaujon."} An inferior copy after VLB, oil on canvas, is in the Musée Carnavalet, Paris. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jan 1982, p. 25 (b&w). [Also see the listing for 1784. There is some confusion over which painting(s) were done in 1784 and which in 1785.]

ca. 1785 "Princesse de Carignan," Connoisseur, Feb. 1907, p. 123; {"1 La Princesse de Carignan."} Marie-Josèphe Thérèse de Lorraine-Brionne, princess of Elbeul (1753-1797), daughter of Comtesse de Brionne (whom VLB painted in 1771) and Louis III de Lorraine-Brionne, Prince de Lambesc. In 1768, she married Vittorio Amedeo di Savoia-Carignano, duc de Carignano. VLB had also painted her sister, Princess de Lorraine, in 1771. [Identified by Dr. Velde.] Another portrait, oil on canvas, 30 3/4" x 26", published in Il Neoclassicismo in Italia, da Tiepolo a Canova, Palazzo reale, Milano 2002, p.321, 499 and 500, is attributed to Grassi, but Olivier Blanc suggested that VLB may have been the artist.

"Luisa Todi," oil on canvas, oval, 31" x 24 1/4" (78.8 x 61.7 cm), Museu da Música, Lisboa, Portugal. {"1 Mme Todi."} {"As for Mme Todi, she united all the qualities of a great singer and managed both comic and tragic roles with equal perfection." - Letter VI} Luisa Todi (1753-1833), born Luisa Rosa de Aguiar, was a very popular Portuguese opera singer. She was born in Setubal, Portugal. [Painting and biography located on Wikipedia.]

1784 "Charles Alexandre de Calonne," oil on canvas, 61 1/4" x 51 1/4" (155.5 x 130.3 cm), signed and dated lower right: Le Brun. f. 1784. Property of Her Majesty Elizabeth II. Antiques, May 1966, p. 707 (?); Antiques, Jan 1968, p. 112 (b&w); L’Oeil, May 1981, p. 53 (color); Baillio (1982), p. 55 (b&w); Apollo, 119:354, May 1984 (b&w); Apollo, Jul 1989, p. 20 (b&w); The Sweetness of Life (color); Baillio (2015), p. 162 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 104 (color). {"1 M. de Calonne."} {"Shortly before the Revolution I painted the portrait of M. de Calonne and I exhibited it at the salon [de l’Académie Royale] of 1785..." - Letter VII} [We also have an image of an oval version, which is shown for later this year, where VLB listed a copy of Calonne.] He lived 1734-1802, and was Controller General of Finances.

1785 "Antoinette-Elisabeth-Marie d’Aguesseau, Comtesse de Ségur," oil on canvas, 36 1/4" x 28 3/4" (92 x 73 cm), Musée National du Château de Versailles. Museum Postcard; Baillio (2015), p. 175 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 106 (color). {"1 Mme la Comtesse de Ségur."} {"...at the home of Mme de La Reynière … I met the Comtesse de Ségur...; she never left the side of her father-in-law, the Marèchal de Ségur..." - Pen Portraits} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1785 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] Lived 1756-1828. The daughter of Jean-Baptiste-Paulin d’Aguesseau de Fresne, comte de Campans (1702-84) (by his second wife, née Le Bret), and grandaughter of the distinguished chancelier Henri-François Daguesseau. In 1777 she married Charles-Louis-Philippe de Ségur (ca. 1753-?), whose father, Philippe-Henri de Ségur, was appointed minister of war in 1780, maréchal de France in 1783.

{"1 Copy of same."}

1785 "Charles-Louis-Philippe de Ségur," Musée National du Château de Versailles. {"1 M. Comte de Ségur."} {"...the Comtesse de Ségur[‘s] … husband, known for his wit and literary talent, was then ambassador to Russia." - Pen Portraits} Lived 1753-1830. His father was Philippe-Henri de Ségur (1724-1801), marechal de France and Minister of War under Louis XVI. [Image provided by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Copy of same."}

1785 "Baronne de Crussol," oil on panel, 44 3/4" x 33 1/8" (113.8 x 84 cm), signed and dated upper right, Lse LeBrun f 1785. Musée des Augustins, Toulouse. Baillio (1982), p. 61 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 177 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 108 (color). {"1 Mme la Baronne de Crussol."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1785 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] Bonne Marie Joséphine Gabrielle Bernard de Boulainvilliers (ca. 1755-after 1826), she married Baron Henri-Charles-Emmanuel de Crussol-Florensac, lieutenant general of the armies of the king.

{"1 M. de Sainte-Hermine."} René-Louis, marquis de Sainte-Hermine, gentilhomme d’honneur et 1er écuyer of comte d’Artois, capitaine colonel au régiment d’artois. Born in 1741 to Louis Clément de Sainte-Hermine and Elisabeth de Maulévrier. In 1775 he married Antoinette de Polignac-Chalencon (elsewhere called Aimée de Polignac), daughter of François Camille marquis de Polignac, first esquire of count d’Artois. They had two daughters. The marquis de Sainte-Hermine died under the emigration in London. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

1785 "André Ernest Modeste Grétry," oil on canvas, oval, 28 3/8" x 23 1/4" (73 x 58.5 cm), signed and dated: LSE VE LE BRUN 1785. Musée National du Château de Versailles. La Revue du Louvre, 16:4-5:208, 1966; Antiques, Jan 1968, p. 111 (b&w); New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, vol. 7, p. 705 (b&w); color image supplied by Maialen Berasategui. {"1 Grétry."} {"We were often joined at these dinners by Grétry... Mme de Bonneuil had a charming voice and sang some of Grétry’s duets with her husband." - Letter III, c. 1773} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1785 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] Lived 1741-1813, French composer.

1785 "Comtesse de Clermont-Tonnerre as a Sultana," oil on canvas, 38 3/4" x 28 1/8" (98.5 x 71.5 cm), signed and dated upper right: Lse LeBrun f 1785. Private Collection, Paris. Baillio (2015), p. 179 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 111 (color). {"1 Mme la Comtesse de Clermont-Tonnerre."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1785 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] Louise Joséphine Delphine de Rosières-Sorans (December 1766- 26 October 1832), a daughter of Henri Louis François de Rosières, marquis de Sorans, and his wife, Marie Louise Elisabeth de Maillé Brézé de Carman. On 25 February 1782, she married Stanislas Marie Adélaïde de Clermont-Tonnerre. Dame pour accompagner Madame Elisabeth.

"Mme la Comtesse de Virieu," oval, unlocated. {"1 Mme la Comtesse de Virieux."} Elisabeth de Dijon (1760-1837), daughter of Jacques de Dijon and Suzanne de Narbonne-Pelet. In 1781 she married François Henri, comte de Virieu (1754-1793). They had two sons, Paul Emile and Aymon, and a daughter Marie Stéphanie (1785-1873). Olivier Blanc supplied this image and identification. VLB also lists a "Mme la Comtesse de Virieux" for 1779, where the portrait is of an older sitter. Olivier believes the 1779 sitter is the mother-in-law of the 1785 sitter.

1785 "Victoire Pauline de Riquet de Caraman, Vicomtesse de Vaudreuil," oil on panel, oval, 32" x 25" (83.2 x 64.8 cm), J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA. Art News, 29:43, 20 Dec 1930; Gazette des Beaux Arts, Nov 1980, p. 161 (b&w); L’Oeil, Mar 1981, p. 41 (color); Baillio (1982), p. 57 (b&w); Apollo, Jul 1989, p. 21 (b&w). {"1 La Vicomtesse de Vaudreuil."} Victoire-Pauline de Riquet de Caraman (1764-1834). In 1781, she married Jean-Louis, Viscount of Vaudreuil (1763-1816), lieutenant-General in the armies of the king and son of a family whose members had been governors of Louisiana and Canada. [Attribution by Joseph Baillio.] See the Baillio (1982) description.

{"2 Copies of the Queen, in full dress."}

1785 "Suzanne Vigée, the artist’s sister-in-law," oil on canvas, 22" x 18 1/8" (56 x 46 cm). Private Collection. Baillio (1982), p. 60 (b&w); Art and Antiques, 6:108, Sep 1989 (color); Baillio (2015), p. 107 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 117 (color). {"1 Mme Vigée."} Suzanne Marie Françoise de Rivière (19 June 1764-24 June 1811), married Etienne Vigée on 19 October 1784. See the Baillio (1982) description.

1784? "Charles Alexandre de Calonne," oil on canvas, oval. [See earlier this year, for the original painting of Calonne.] {"1 Copy of M. de Calonne."}

{"1 M. de Beaujon, for his hospital."} {"M. de Beaujon once commissioned me to paint his portrait which he intended to hang in the hospital he had founded … in the Roule district... he wanted to be painted sitting in front of his desk, down to the knee, with both hands visible..."- Pen Portraits} The Memoirs imply that this was VLB’s first portrait of Beaujon, whereas she has it listed as the third, with one in 1784 and one earlier this year.

1785 "Bacchante," oil on panel, 43" x 34 5/8" (109 x 88 cm), signed and dated lower right: L V Le Brun / 1785, Musée Nissim de Camondo, Paris. Musée Nissim de Camondo Catalogue (color); Baillio (1982), p. 65 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 20 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 12 (color). {Historical Paintings: "1 Bacchante with tiger skin."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1785 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] [California Palace of Legion of Honor has an excellent oil on canvas copy, which was identified as a VLB in the L.A. Times Book of California Museums. However, Baillio believes this and the copy at Château de Pregny are by someone else, and the California museum now identifies the painting as "after" VLB.] Olivier Blanc suggests that the model was Mlle Duthé (painting by Perrin Salbreux).

1785 "Bacchante," oil on canvas, oval, 28 7/8" x 23 3/8" (73.3 x 59.4 cm), signed and dated upper middle: Lse Vge Le Brun f 1785. Sterling & Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Massachusetts; Baillio (1982), p. 22 (color); The Sweetness of Life (b&w); museum slide (color); Baillio (2015), p. 63 & 135; Baillio (2016), p. 103 (color). [VLB doesn’t list or mention this Bacchante. Olivier Blanc suggests that Sophie de Tott could have been the model. For comparison, see a sketch identified as Mme de Tott.] See the Baillio (1982) description.

1785 "Marie Antoinette," oil on canvas, 36 3/4" x 29 1/2" (93.3 x 74.8 cm), signed and incorrectly dated lower right: L E Vigée Le Brun 1778. Private collection. American Artist, Jan 1952, p. 47 (b&w); L’Oeil, Mar 1981, p. 36 (color); Baillio (1982), p. 62 (b&w); Connaissance des Arts, Feb 1988, p. 53 (color); L’Oeil, 394:1, May 1988 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 8 (color). [Commissioned in 1785 for the Ministère des Affaires Estrangères. At the age of 82, VLB authenticated the painting, signing it and adding the wrong date.] See the Baillio (1982) description. A copy, oil on canvas, is found at Konopiste Castle, Czech Republic.

1785 "Girl Crowned with Roses / (Laure de Bonneuil ?)," black chalk heightened with red and white chalk on cream-colored paper, oval within a rectangle, 11 3/4" x 8" (30.2 x 20.2 cm), signed and dated in graphite, lower right: L.V. / le brun / 1785. Musée du Louvre, Cabinet des Dessins, Paris. Baillio (1982), p. 67 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 211. Eléonore Françoise Augustine Guesnon de Bonneuil, nicknamed Laure. Lived 1775-1857. She was the daughter of Mme Bonneuil, who was painted by VLB in 1773, and whom VLB had called the prettiest lady in Paris. [This drawing was presented to the Louvre by a niece of Laure de Bonneuil, whom VLB painted as an adult (see 1805). While Olivier Blanc considers this to be Laure de Bonneuil, Baillio had earlier disputed this identification. See the Baillio (1982) description.] In Baillio (2015), Xavier Salmon considers this model to be the same as that in "Girl Wearing a Veil," listed below, but considers it unproven that the sitter was a ten-year-old Laure de Bonneuil.

1785 "Girl Wearing a Veil," black chalk, stump heightened with white on cream-colored paper, 11" x 8" (27.8 x 20.4 cm), signed and dated in graphite, lower left: Louise Vigée Le Brun 1785. Musée du Louvre, Cabinet des Dessins, Paris. Baillio (1982), p. 66 (b&w); L’Oeil, Jun/Jul 1983, p. 34; Baillio (2015), p. 210. See the Baillio (1982) description. In Baillio (2015), Xavier Salmon considers this model to be the same as that in "Girl Crowned with Roses," listed above, but considers it unproven that the sitter was a ten-year-old Laure de Bonneuil.

1785 “Girl Wearing a Veil,” black chalk, heightened with white, red chalk accents, on cream-colored paper, 35.6 x 24.9 cm. Thanks to Angela Demutskiy for locating image.

1786

1786 "Marie Renée Louise De Foucquet," oil on canvas, 21 1/2" x 17 3/4" x 13 3/4" (54.5 x 45 mm), signed and dated lower left: Louise Vgee Le Brun. f. 1786. Comtesse de Selancy, France. Baillio (1982), p. 69 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 195 (color). {"1 Mme Fouquet’s little daughter."} Marie Renée Louise de Foucquet (1778-1845) was the daughter of Jean Gabriel Rêne François de Foucquet, seigneur de La Grange, de Manom et de Brulange, vicomte d’Auvillars, and his wife Marie Louise Eugénie Blondel d’Aubers. In 1803, the sitter married Anne Pierre, the Vicomte de Bertier de Sauvigny. The sitter's maternal grandmother was a sister of Charles Alexandre de Calonne. See the Baillio (1982) description.

{"1 Mme de Tott."} Sophie-Ernestine de Tott (b. ca. 1770 Constantinople-d. Hungary), daughter of Marie Rambaud and Baron François de Tott De Varneville de Villefort, a diplomat in Turkey, Inspecteur général des Etablissements français au Levant. She was called "Mme" because she was a dame chanoinesse [sequestered in a convent]. She was a painter, who studied briefly with VLB. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.] A drawing by VLB, 15" x 12 1/2", black and colored chalks on paper, is identified as Mme de Tott by T. Douwes Dekker of Holland, and was perhaps a preparatory sketch for VLB’s painting of this sitter.

1786 "Le Petit d’Espagnac," oil on canvas, oval, 25" x 20 1/2" (64.7 x 54 cm), Wallace Collection, London. Connoisseur, Jan 1918, p. 93 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 70 (b&w); museum postcard. {"1 The little d’Espagnac."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1787 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] The sitter was the son of Jean Joseph Damarzit, baron d’Espagnac, maréchal de camp et armées du roi, gouverneur de l’hôtel royal des Invalides. [Biographical information from Olivier Blanc.]

1786 "Caroline Lalive de La Briche," Private collection, France. Baillio (1982), p. 70 (b&w); Color photo from Witt Library. [The black and white photo in Baillio is a mirror of this color photo, so perhaps the color photo should be mirrored.] {"1 The little de la Briche."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1787 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] Another photo from the Witt Library shows a second portrait, 23 1/2" x 19 1/2," signed and dated lower right: M. Elith LeBrun 1787 -- but Baillio had jotted a note that this wasn’t by VLB. Caroline Lalive de La Briche, who would marry Comte Molé. She was the daughter of Adélaïde Edmée Prévost (whom VLB painted in 1788), and Alexis Janvier de La Live de La Briche.

1786 "Marguerite Baudard de Saint James, marquise de Puységur, dressed as milkmaid," oil on cradled panel, 41 1/2" x 29 1/4" (105.5 x 74.5 cm), signed and dated lower left: L Le Brun f. 1786. Snite Museum of Art, Notre Dame University. Apollo, 87:45, Jan 1968 (b&w); museum slide; Baillio (2016), p. 118 (color). {"1 Mme de Puységur."} Margeurite Baudard (13 February 1766-18 February 1837), was a daughter of Claude Baudard de Saint-James and Julie Augustine Thibault Dubois. In 1781, she married Armand Marie Jacques de Chastenet, marquis de Puységur.

1786 "Madame Molé-Raymond," oil on panel, 41" x 30" (104 x 76 cm), Louise Vgée Le Brun f / 1786, Musée du Louvre, Paris. Connoisseur, Mar 1938, p. 161; Baillio (1982), p. 113 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 30 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 22 (color). An unfinished portrait or rough sketch, 15" x 18," is now in the Kunsthalle Bremen, Germany; color photograph from Museum website. {"1 Mme Raymond."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1787 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] Elisabeth Félicité Pinet, born 23 July 1760 in Paris, to Pierrette Claudine Hélène Pinet (called Mlle d’Epinay), an actress of the Théâtre Français. Her biological father was probably the duke de Villeroy, but her mother married François Molé, who gave his name to the sitter. The sitter was an actress at the Comédie-Française. On 29 January 1780, she married Gabriel François Raymond, secretary of the Marshall de Noailles and a comedian of the Italian Theater. [Biographical information from Olivier Blanc.]

1786 "Comtesse Marie Adélaïde Geneviève d’Andlau," oval. Vigée LeBrun, p. 202 (Doubleday, 1903). {"1 Mme Daudelot."} Countess Marie Adélaïde Geneviève d'Andlau, née Helvétius (26 January 1754, Saint-Roch parish (Paris) - 20 November 1817, chateau de Vore, Remalard), was the daughter of the French philosopher, Claude Adrien Helvétius and Anne-Catherine "Minette" de Ligniville d’Autricourt (1722-1800), who came from a prominent aristocratic family, related to Marie Antoinette. The sitter was famous for her beauty and personality. In Paris on 27 September 1772, she married François-Antoine Henri d’Andlau-Hombourg (15 April 1736, Hombourg (Alsace) - 20 July 1820, Paris). They lived in Versailles, and the sitter was close to Marie Antoinette. [Olivier Blanc presumes that "Daudelot" is a very bad spelling of d'Andlau. VLB listed the sitter again after 1805, spelled correctly, also painting four of her children then.] 

{"1 Mme Davaray."} Angélique Adélaïde Sophie de Mailly, daughter of Louis, count de Mailly, marquis de Nesles, and d’Anne Françoise l’Arbaleste de Melun. In 1758 she married Claude Antoine de Bésiade, chevalier, marquis D’Avaray, baron de Lussay (1740-?). [Identified by Olivier Blanc] VLB painted her sister, Mme de Montbarrey, in 1776.

1786 "Comtesse de Sabran et Pontevès," oil on canvas, oval, 19 5/8" x 15 3/8" (50 x 39 cm), castle Rheinsberg, north of Berlin (formerly in Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin). Apollo, 107:front,120 Jun 1978; Burlington, 120:lxxxvii, Jun 1978 (b&w); Country Life, 163:supp p. 59, 8 Jun 1978; Baillio (2015), P. 75 (color). {"1 Mme la Comtesse de Sabran."} {"I first made the acquaintance of Mme la Comtesse de Sabran a few years before the Revolution." - Pen Portraits} (The sitter was also painted by Houdon, Sicardi, and Le Sage.)

1786 "Self-Portrait with her Daughter (Maternal tenderness)," oil on panel, 41 3/8" x 33 1/8" (105 x 84 cm), signed & dated, upper right: Louise Vigée Le Brun f. 1786. Musée du Louvre, Paris. History of Painting (1911), vol. 6, p. 254 (color); Baillio (1982), p. 73 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 203 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 28 (color); Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 54 (color). {"1 Self portrait with my daughter."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1787 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] A study, red chalk, 17" x 15", was located at the Witt Library.

1787

1787 "Julie Le Brun, reading the Bible," Private collection, NY. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Nov 1980 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 76 (b&w). {"1 My daughter reading the Bible."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1787 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] [Attribution by Joseph Baillio.]

1787 "Caroline de Murat, Marquise de Pezay, and Nathalie-Victorienne de Mortemart, Marquise de Rougé, with Her Sons Alexis-Bonabes and Adrien de Rougé," oil on canvas, 48 5/8" x 61 3/8" (123.4 x 155.9 cm), National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Antiques, Nov 1967, p. 712 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 23 (color); The Sweetness of Life (b&w); museum slide; Baillio (2015), p. 206 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 124 (color). {"1 Mme de Rougé and two sons."} {"...the Marquise de Rougé and Mme de Pezé, her friend, whom I painted together in the same picture..." - Letter VI} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1787 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] Caroline de Murat was the widow of Alexandre Frédéric Jacques Masson, Marquis de Pezay, who had died in 1777. Natalie Victurnienne (d. 1828) was the widow of Bonabes Alexis, Marquis de Rougé, who had died in 1782. Alexis Bonabes Louis Victurnien, 1778-1838. Adrien, 1782-1861. See the Baillio (1982) description. [Also see the 1788 list for a painting of the Marquise de Rougé, in riding habit.]

1787 "Actress Dugazon in the Role of Nina," oil on canvas, 57 7/8" x 45 3/8" (147 x 115 cm), Private Collection, Switzerland. Gazette des Beaux Arts, 6:7:54, Jan 1932 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 180 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 127 (color). {"1 Mme Dugazon in Nina."} {"...she was the greatest talent the Opéra-Comique ever possessed...I think I went to see Nina at least twenty times..." - Letter VIII} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1787 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] Louise-Rosalie Dugazon, née Lefèbvre (18 June 1755-1821), French soprano. Her husband, called Dugazon, was born Jean-Henry Gourgaud. He lived 1746-1809, and was an actor of the Comédie-Française. "Dugazon" has come to mean a singer who specialises in soubrette roles, usually involving intelligent acting. [In Letter VIII, VLB also mentioned Mdm Vestris, Dugazon’s sister. This was Françoise Marie Rosette Gourgaud (1743-1804), who married Angelo Vestris, a fellow actor of the Comédie-Italienne. Angelo Vestris was a brother of Gaétan Vestris (1729-1808), considered one of the greatest dancers of all time. Gaétan and his mistress Marie Allard, a prominent ballerina, had a son, Auguste Vestris (1760-1842), who was also a great dancer. VLB also mentioned these dancers in Letter VIII. Auguste in turn had a son, Auguste Armand Vestris (1788-1825), again a dancer, though he is best remembered as the first husband of the English actress and theatrical manager, Madame Lucia Elizabeth (Bartolozzi) Vestris (1797-1856).]

1787 "Joseph Caillot," oil on canvas, 36 1/4" x 28 3/8" (92 x 72 cm). Private Collection, Paris. Baillio (2015), p. 182 (color). {"1 Cailleau, in hunting costume."} {"He wore the uniform [of the Captain of the Hunt] and this was how I painted him, his rifle on his shoulder. So inspiring was his handsome laughing face that I managed to complete the painting in one sitting." - Letter VIII} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1787 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] Joseph Caillot (24 January 1733, Paris – 30 September 1816, Paris), actor and singer who starred from 1760-72, performing sporadically afterwards. On 15 August 1779, he married Marie Augustine "Blanchette" Saÿde, daughter of an optician and jeweler. It is known that the couple had a daughter, Augustine Catherine Caillot (2 September 1780, Passy - after 1822) and a son, Armand Charles Caillot (1788-1813). The sitter was an avid hunter, and served as mayor in Saint Germain, ca. 1813.

1787 "Augustine Catherine Caillot," pastel, oval, 18 1/2" x 15" (45 x 37.5 cm). Collection of Michel Delrue. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006); Baillio (2015), p. 221 (color). Auctioned as the work of Greuze, but Baillio in L’Oeil, Jun 1993, p. 25, felt the painting was the work of VLB.{"2 His two children."} Assuming this painting is the work of VLB and represents the daughter of Caillot, the sitter would be: Augustine Catherine Caillot (2 September 1780, Passy - after 1822). In March 1822 she married Pierre Simon Godar (or Godard).

1787 "Son of the actor Caillot?," pastel, oval, 18 1/2" x 15" (45 x 37.5 cm). Collection of Michel Delrue. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006); Baillio (2015), p. 220 (color). Auctioned as the work of Greuze, but Baillio in L’Oeil, Jun 1993, p. 24, felt the painting was the work of VLB.{"2 His two children."} The only record of a son of Caillot is Armand Charles Caillot (1788-1813), who was not even born in 1787. Perhaps there was another son not listed in the records, or the sitter is another relative.

ca. 1786-87 "Julie Le Brun, looking in a mirror," oil on panel, 28 3/4" x 23 3/4" (73 x 60.3 cm), Collection of Michel David-Weill. Art News, 6 Nov 1937, cover; Art Digest, 15 Feb 1938, p. 10 (b&w); Art News, Jan 1971, p. 34; Baillio (1982), p. 24 (color); L’Oeil, Jun 1982, p. 72; Baillio (2015), p. 194 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 129 (color). {"1 My daughter, in profile."} See the Baillio (1982) description.

ca. 1786-87 "Julie Le Brun, looking in a mirror," oil on canvas, 28 3/4" x 23 3/8" (73 x 59.5 cm), Private collection, Paris. Baillio (2016), p. 128 (color). {"1 The same, looking in a mirror."} 

{"1 Mme de la Grange."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1787 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] {"1 Mme de la Grange."} Angélique Adélaïde de Méliand, daughter of Charles Blaise de Méliand, maître des requêtes puis conseiller d’Etat, and Marie Louise Adélaïde du Quesnoy. On 5 January 1766 she married François Joseph Le Lièvre, marquis de Fourilles et de La Grange, brigadier des Armées du roi et sous lieutenant de la compagnie des mousquetaires. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.] First painted by VLB in 1774.

1787 "Queen Marie Antoinette and Her Children," 108 1/4" x 85 1/4" (275 x 216.5 cm), signed and dated lower left: L Vigée. Le Brun. 1787. Musée National du Château de Versailles. Antiques, Nov 1967, p. 710 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 80 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 159 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 120 (color); Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 24 (color). {"1 Large painting of Queen Marie-Antoinette and her children."} {"I painted her head for the large canvas … as well as separate studies for the Premier Dauphin, the Madame Royale and the Duc de normandie." - Letter V; "It showed Marie Antoinette with the first Dauphin and Madame by her side and the Duc de Normandie on her knee." - Chap. XXXIV} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1787 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale, and also at the Salon of 1817.] [The empty cradle is a reference to Princess Sophie, who was born and died in 1786.]

{"1 Self-portrait."}

1787 "Comtesse de Béon," oil on canvas, oval. Vigée Le Brun, her life, works and friendship, by William Henry Helm, p. 15. (Sold by Parke Bernet, NY, Jan. 28, 1949, lot 282.) Helm gives the size as 35" x 27 1/2," while an image found in the Witt Library shows the size as 36" x 38 1/2." [One portrait was at the ?Mauléon collection, Chalabre, France. One is listed as sold 6/7/1912 by Christie’s, London, to Thrift, £.1627.] {"2 Mme la Comtesse de Béon."} [Per Baillio (1982), one of these two portraits was exhibited in 1787 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] Born Marie-Madeleine-Charlotte de Béon du Massès de Cazeaux, nièce du bailli de Montauroux; one of the ladies "pour accompagner" Madame Adélaïde de France since 1782. In 1779 she married François-Frédéric, comte de Béon-Béarn, officier des gardes du corps du roi, who emigrated and died in 1802. In 1805, Mme de Béon married comte Prosper d’Hautpoul. {Biographical information from Olivier Blanc.}

{"1 M Le Jeune."}

{"3 Monsieur, the Dauphin; Madame; and M. le Duc de Normandie, for Mme de Polignac."}

{"3 Monsieur, the Dauphin; Madame; and M. le Duc de Normandie, for Mme de Polignac."}

{"3 Monsieur, the Dauphin; Madame; and M. le Duc de Normandie, for Mme de Polignac."} Louis Charles, later Louis XVII, 1785-1795.

{"1 Mme de Verdun’s aunt."}

{"1 La Duchesse de Guiche, holding a garland of flowers."}

{"1 The same in pastel."}

{1 "The Duchesse de Polignac with straw hat."} This listing is an erroneous duplication. The painting of the Duchesse de Polignac was prepared in 1782, and appears in the list for that year, above.

1783 "Yolande Gabrielle Martine de Polastron, Duchesse de Polignac," 38 3/4" x 28" (98.4 x 71.1 cm), National Trust, Waddesdon Manor, Buckinghamshire. Waddesdon Manor Catalogue; Baillio (1982), p. 53 (b&w); The Sweetness of Life (b&w). {"1 The same, holding a sheet of music and singing by a piano."} Baillio states that the painting was completed in 1783, despite its listing here in 1787.

{"1 Mme de Chatenay, mother."} [The Comtesse de Chastenay appears in VLB’s list for 1782, though the portrait (listed there) is believed to date closer to 1785, when it was exhibited. Baillio believes this is an erroneous duplicate listing, and thinks "mother" is meant to distinguish the sitter from her more famous daughter, Louise Marie Victorine, 1771-1815.]

{"1 Mme Dubarry, full-length."} This is an erroneous placement (and description), which must refer to the knee-length portrait, dated 1782. I have moved the description and information of the painting to the end of the 1782 list.

{"1 The same, in her robe."} This is an erroneous duplication of the 1781 listing, "1 La Comtesse Dubarry."

Yolande Gabrielle Martine de Polastron, Duchesse de Polignac,” oil on canvas. L'Illustration, No. 4575 (1930) {"1 Mme de Polignac."} The article was about L'Hôtel de Ville d'Alençon. [Thanks to Angela Demutskiy for locating this image.]

1787 "Mohammed Dervisch-Khan," oil on canvas, 88 3/4" x 53 1/2" (225.5 x 136 cm). Marnier-Lapostolle collection, France. J.F. Heim, C. Beraud, P. Heim, Les Salons de peinture de la Revolution francaise 1789-1799 (Paris, 1989), p.383 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 167 (color). {"...ambassadors were sent to Paris by the Emperor Tipoo-Saïb. ...the larger of the two, whose name was Davich Khan … I painted him standing, his hand on his dagger." - Letter IV} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1789 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] 

1787 "Mohammed Usman-Khan," oil on canvas, 72" x 42 1/8" (183 x 107 cm). Unlocated. {"I … started drawing the old ambassador who sat with his son beside him...They were both dressed in gowns of white muslin, embroidered with gold flowers; these robes, a kind of tunic with large sleeves folded back at the cuff, were fastened at the waist with richly decorated belts." - Letter IV} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1789 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] Tipoo-Saïb sought an alliance with the French to oust the English from India. The ambassadors failed, and Tipoo-Saïb had them beheaded upon their return.

1788

{"1 Le Duc de Polignac."}{"...Comte Jules de Polignac … became Duke in 1780." - Chap. XII, Footnote 1} Armand-Jules- Francois, lived 1745-1817.

{"1 His father."} Louis-Melchior-Armand, vicomte de Polignac was born 1717, died after 1792. He married twice. By Marie-Zephirine Mancini (d. before 1777) he had Armand-Jules-Francois, le duc de Polignac (1745-1817), Philippe-Jules-Francois (1747-?), and two daughters. By Madeleine-Elizabeth de Fleury (d. 1788) he had Heraclius-Auguste- Gabriel, comte de Polignac (1788-1871), and Elisabeth-Julie-Diane (1785-?), who married Sabakhin, chancellor of Russia.

1788 "Auguste-Jules-Armand-Marie, prince Jules de Polignac as a child," oil on canvas, 40" x 32 1/2." Owned by the Cincinnati Art Museum from 1927 through 1987, when it was deaccessioned. It was sold at Leslie Hindman Gallery, Chicago, on 23 June 1988, lot 588 - (Per correspondence from John Wilson, Curator of Painting and Sculpture, to C.S. Stein). [Not listed or mentioned by VLB; she did list a pastel done in Vienna (1792-95) of “two brothers of the duchesse de Guiche,” probably this sitter and his younger brother.] Auguste-Jules-Armand-Marie (1780-1847), the second son of the duc and duchesse de Polignac, became comte in 1817, and was made prince in 1820 by Pope Pius VII. He served as prime minister of Charles X.

1788 "Hubert Robert," oil on panel, 41 3/8" x 33 1/8" (105 x 84), signed at upper right: E. Vigée Le Brun. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Antiques, Jan 1968, p. 111 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 94 (b&w); Art and Antiques, 6:108, Sep 1989 (color); Paintings in the Louvre, by Lawrence Gowing, p. 577; J.F. Heim, C. Beraud, P. Heim, Les Salons de peinture de la Revolution francaise 1789-1799 (Paris, 1989) (b&w); The Sweetness of Life (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 186 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 29 (color); Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 44 (color). {"1 Robert, the landscape painter, for myself."} {"...I painted one of my best portraits, that of Robert, palette in hand." - Letter IX} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1789 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] Hubert Robert (22 May 1733 – 15 April 1808) was a French artist noted for his landscape paintings.

"Mme Geneviève Sophie Le Couteulx du Molay," oil on canvas, 39 3/8" x 31 1/8," Musée Nissim de Camondo, Paris. L’Oeil, Sep 1988, p. 54. {"1 Mme Dumoley."} {"In the summer of 1788, I went to spend a fortnight at Malmaison, which then belonged to the Comtesse du Molay" - Letter XI} Geneviève Sophie Le Couteulx de la Noraye, wife of Jacques-Jean Le Couteulx du Molay. VLB also painted the sitter in 1781. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

"Adélaïde de La Briche," Noailles collection in Chateau de Champlatreux. {"1 Mme de la Briche."}Adélaïde Edmée Prévost, born in Nancy on 12 September 1755; died in Paris on 29 January 1844. She was the daughter of Bon Prévost, receveur général des fermes du duché de Lorraine. In 1780, she married Alexis Janvier de La Live de La Briche (1735-30 July 1785), who in 1764 became introducteur des ambassadeseurs depuis and who in 1777 became secrétair honoraire des commanbdements de la reine Marie-Antoinette. He was the brother of Mme d’Houdetot. The couple’s daughter, Caroline, was painted by VLB in 1786. [Image and information courtesy of Olivier Blanc.] Another version is published in Autour de la Madeleine, art, littérature et société, Action artistique de la Ville de Paris, Paris, May 2005, p.98, in an article by Olivier Blanc.

1788 "Comtesse de Beaumont," 102 x 81 cm, Private Collection, Paris. {"1 Mme la Comtesse de Beaumont."} Illustrated by Marie-Louise Pailleron, Pauline de Beaumont, l’Hirondelle de Chateaubriand, Paris, Éditions Excelsior, 1930. Pauline de Montmorin Saint-Hérem (1768-1803), who married comte François de Beaumont ca. 1786, divorced 1800. [Information from Olivier Blanc; color photo found by Angela Demutskiy.] Also on VLB’s list for 1776.

{"1 The young Baron d’Escars."} Probably a son of Jean-François Perusse d’Escars, capitaine des Gardes du Comte d’Artois (1747-1822) and Pauline-Louise-Joséphine de Laborde (1767-1792). The couple is known to have had a daughter Euphrosine, born in 1787 and another child who died in 1789. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 The young Prince Lubomirski."} This may represent a study in pastel or oil for the following listing.

1787-88 "Young Prince Lubomirski, amour de la gloire," oil on oak, 41 1/2" x 32 5/8" (105.5 x 83 cm), Gemäldegalerie, Berlin. Art News, 55:44, Jun 1956 (b&w); Apollo, 87:144, Feb 1968 (b&w); Masterworks of the Gemaldegalerie, Berlin, p. 415 (color); Baillio (2015), p. 198 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 135 (color); Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 37 (color). Prince Henryk Lubomirski (15 Sep 1777-1850), the son of Prince Jozef Lubomirski and Ludwika Sosnowska. He married 24 May 1807 to Princess Teresa Czartoryska, whom VLB would paint in Dresden in 1801. A copy on canvas, shown as: 1788 "The Young Prince Lubomirski as Amour," oil on canvas, 42" x 34," was attributed to V. Lebrun and studio, in Architectural Digest, Jun 1990, p. 8 (color). {"1 The same, in love with Glory."} {"I had just used the wreath whilst painting the young prince, Henry Lubomirski, in The Love of Glory; I had depicted him kneeling before a laurel bush weaving a crown from its leaves." - Letter VII} {"...Princess Lubomirska, whom I had known in Paris at the time when I painted the portrait of her nephew in Amour de la gloire..." - Chap. XII} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1789 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.]

1788 "Alexandrine Emilie Brongniart," oil on panel, 25 5/8" x 20 7/8" (65.1 x 53.3 cm), National Gallery, London. La Revue du Louvre, 24:2:108, 1974; Baillio (1982), p. 35 (b&w); museum postcard; Baillio (2015), p. 197 (color). {"1 The young Brongniart."} {"[T]wo of my good friends, Brongniart the architect and his wife, came to visit me ..." - Letter XII} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1789 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] Alexandrine-Emilie Brongniart (15 September 1780 - 18 March 1847), daughter of the architect Alexandre-Theodore Brongniart (1739-1813) and his wife, Anne Louise d'Égremont (1741-1829). In 1801, the sitter married Louis-André Pichon (1771-1854), a diplomat and future baron. He negotiated the sale of the Louisiana colony. He served as consul general, ambassador, Secretary General at the Ministry of Justice, and a state councilor. The couple had four children, three of whom survived to adulthood.

1787-88 "Marquise de Grollier," oil on panel, 36 3/16" x 28 1/4" (92 x 72 cm). Comte Jean-François de Roussy de Sales, Château de Thorens, Thorens-Glieres. Baillio (1982), p. 77 (b&w); Art Journal, 42:4:335-8, Winter 1982; Baillio (2015), p. 185 (color). {"1 The Marquise de Grollier."} Charlotte Eustache Sophie de Fuligny Damas (21 December 1741-1828) was the youngest daughter of Henri Anne de Fuligny Damas, seigneur d’Agey (1669-1745) and Marie Gabrielle de Pons de Rennepont (1709-79). In 1760, she married in Lyonnais to Pierre Louis, marquis de Grollier et de Treffort, seigneur de Pont-d’Ain (1730-93), capitaine du régiment de Foix-infanterie. They had three children:(1) Gabriel, born c.1761 and died by 1783.(2) Claudine Alexandrine was born in 1763; she married Benoît Maurice marquis de Sales; and she died after 1809. (3) Antoine Charles Eugène (cited as Joseph Eugène by Poidebard), was born in 1765 and died in 1810 . [Timothy Boettger provided some biographical information and noted that the sitter's husband improperly usurped the title Marquis: while he owned the marquisate of Treffort, that only entitled him to the style of seigneur du marquisat de Treffort, per Revue du Lyonnais 1867, p. 120.]The sitter is also on VLB’s list for 1789, and following her return to Paris in 1805. The sitter was also painted several times by Fabre.  See the Baillio (1982) description.

1787 "Alexandre Charles Emmanuel, bailli de Crussol," oil on panel, 35 3/8" x 25 1/2" (89.9 x 64.8 cm), signed and dated upper right L.se E.bet Vigée: LeBrun: P.xte 1787. Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY. Art Quarterly, 15 no. 2: 170-8, 1952; Antiques, Jan 1968, p. 112 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 78 (b&w); Art & Antiques, Sep 1989, p. 108; museum postcard; Baillo (2015), p. 33 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 130 (color). {"The Bailly de Crussol."} {"...in September 1789 … I receive[d] payment in full for a portrait; it was from the Bailly de Crusol..." - Letter VII} Lived 1743-1815, he was for many years the companion of the Marquise de Grollier, listed above. The pair also appear on VLB’s list for 1789, and again after her return to Paris. Those other paintings are not known; it’s possible that VLB erred in recording her list. Thanks to Timothy Boettger for correcting the sitter's year of birth and for correcting his title (some sources say duc d’Uzès, but that title belonged to another branch of the Crussol family, whereas this sitter belonged to the Florensac branch).

{"1 Mme de La Guiche, as a milkmaid."} This is probably an erroneous duplication. See listing for 1783.

{"1 M. le Comte d’Angiviller."} {"Charles-Claude Labillarderie, Comte d’Angiviller, had been Director General of the Royal Buildings as well as the Royal Academies and Workshops." - Pen Portraits, Footnote 2}

1788 "Nathalie-Victorienne de Mortemart, Marquise de Rougé," oil on canvas, oval, 32" x 25½”. There is an identifying inscription on the reverse of the relining canvas: “victorienne delphine natalie de Rochechoüart Mortemart. M.qui de Rougé. peint en 1788.” Sold Christie's, London, 2 December 2008, Sale 5433, Lot 144 ($15,810). [Thanks to Angela Demutskiy for the color image and information.] [VLB had listed “1 Mme de Rougé and her two sons” in 1787, but did not list this separate painting of the sitter.]

1788 "Queen Marie Antoinette ("en robe de velours bleu")," oil on canvas, 106 5/8" x 76 3/4" (271 x 195 cm), signed and dated on column: E. Vigée Le Brun / 1788. Musée National du Château de Versailles. Antiques, Nov 1967, p. 711 (b&w); Baillio (2016), p. 133 (color). This version of the painting features a four-strand pearl necklace. Baillio (1982) reports a half-length studio copy (perhaps this copy), is in the collection of the Marquis de Moustier, Château de Bournel, France. Ballio (1982) also cited a pastel owned by the Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota, Florida. However, this pastel, which is not on display, was identified as being "after VLB" by the Associate Registrar, Rebecca Engelhardt, in an e-mail note to C.S. Stein, 18 March 1998.

ca. 1788 "Queen Marie Antoinette ("en robe de velours bleu")," oil on canvas, 109 1/2" x 75 1/2" (278 x 192 cm). New Orleans Museum of Art. Baillio (1982), p. 79 (b&w); museum website. This version of the painting does not include a necklace. See the Baillio (1982) description.

ca. 1788 "Queen Marie Antoinette ("en robe de velours bleu")," [~] black chalk on cream paper, 9 1/8" x 7 1/2" (23.2 x 18.8 cm), Musée National du Château de Versailles. Baillio (2016), p. 132. Baillio has made this attribution, and considers the work to be a ricordo, a studio record that is made after completion of an artwork. 

1788 "Laure de Bonneuil," sketch. {Not listed or mentioned by VLB.} Eléonore Françoise Augustine Guesnon de Bonneuil, nicknamed Laure de Bonneuil. Lived 1775-1857. She would later marry the French statesman Michel Louis Etienne Régnault de Saint Jean d´Angély (1762-1819), who was the Conseiller d´Etat under the Consulat, Secretaire d´Etat to the Imperial family in 1810, and Ministre d´Etat under Napoleon in 1814. VLB would paint her as a married lady, in 1805. The sitter was the daughter of Mme Bonneuil, who was painted by VLB in 1773, and whom VLB had called the prettiest lady in Paris. [Olivier Blanc reports that this sketch was prepared when Laure was 12, while she was a guest at VLB’s famous Greek Supper.]

1789

1789 "Marquis de Chastellux," 29 1/2" x 23 5/8," Comte Louis de Chastellux. Washington National Portrait Gallery, "Abroad in America: Visitors to the New World," 1976, no. 1; Apollo, ns 104:134, Aug 1976 (b&w). {"1 M. de Chatellux, from memory."} Marquis Francois-Jean de Chastellux (1734-1788), married (1787) to Marie-Brigitte Plunkett, who died 1815. He was the younger son of comte de Chastellux. His father died when he was very young, and he was raised by his guardian, chancellor d´Aguesseau (a relative of his mother). [Biographical information courtesy of Jana Talkenberg.]

{"1 The Duke de Normandie, full-length."}

1789 "Madame Adélaïde Pérrégaux," oil on panel, 39 1/4" x 30 7/8" (99.6 x 78.5 cm), signed and dated lower left: Louise Vigée Le Brun f. 1789. Wallace Collection, London. Connoisseur, Mar 1919, p. 171; Baillio (1982), p. 128 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 31 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 23 (color). {"1 Mme Péregaux."} Adélaïde Harenc de Praël (baptized 7 September 1758, Paris - died 22 January 1794, Paris), was born to Bernardin du Praël, comte du Praël de Surville (1733-?), chevalier de Saint Louis,capitaine attaché au service de l'infanterie, and his wife Louis d'Alix-Geffrier. The sitter married on 20 January 1779, in Longpont-sur-Orge (91), to a Swiss banker, Jehan Frédéric Perregaux (4 September 1744, Neuchâtel, Switzerland -17 February 1808, Viry-Chatillon). The couple had one son and one daughter.

"Antoinette-Elizabeth-Marie d’Aguesseau, Comtesse de Ségur," oval, unlocated. Image from Olivier Blanc. {"1 Mme de Ségur, profile."} {..."in 1788 … I left … to spend a few days at Romainville, the home of the Maréchal de Ségur..." - Letter XI} Also see VLB’s portrait of 1785.

{"1 Large portrait of Queen Marie-Antoinette for the Baron de Breteuil."}

"Duchess de la Rochefoucauld," pastel on paper, mounted on canvas, oval, 39 3/8" x 33" (100 x 84 cm). Private collection (sold by Sotheby’s on 6 December 1987). Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006); Baillio (2015), p. 223 (color). {"1 The Duchess de la Rochefoucauld."}  Alexandrine-Charlotte-Sophie de Rohan-Chabot, duchesse de La Rochefoucauld (and later Marquise de Castellane) (1763 - 14 December 1839). Her parents were Louis Antoine Auguste de Rohan Chabot, duc de Chabot (1703-1807), an officer of the armée royale, and his wife, Elisabeth Louise de La Rochefoucauld d’Enville (1740-88). On 13 March 1780, she was married to a maternal uncle, Louis Alexandre, duc de la Rochefoucauld d’Enville (1743-92). In 1810, she married a cousin, Boniface Louis, marquis de Castellane (1758-1837). An image of a different version was provided by Angela Demutskiy. [Photo courtesy of Charles Vatinel and Olivier Blanc.] Another painting of "Mme de Castellane," oil on canvas, attributed to VLB, was at the Musée Fragonard, Grasse (the image being located at the Witt Library).

{"1 A small cupid for M. le Pelletier de Morfontaine."}

1789 "Louise Marie Adélaïde de Penthièvre, The Duchesse d’Orléans," oil on panel, 43 1/4" x 33," signed and dated upper right: Louise Le Brun f. 1789. Collection Comte de Paris, Fondation Saint Louis, Château d’Amboise. Antiques, Nov 1967, p. 712 (b&w); Art in America, Nov 1982, p. 74; Baillio (1982), p. 25 (color); Burlington, 124:526, Aug 1982. {"1 Mme la Duchesse d’Orléans."} Born in Paris, 13 March 1753, the daughter of Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duke of Penthièvre and Princess Maria Theresa Felicitas of Modena (who died the following year). At age 15, following the death of her brother, she became the sole heiress to what would become the largest fortune in France.On 5 April 1769, she married Louis Philippe Joseph d'Orléans, Duke of Chartres (13 April 1747 – executed 6 November 1793). During the Revolution, she was imprisoned and had her properties seized. In 1797, she was exiled to Spain, returning to France in 1814 and recovering most of her properties. She died in her castle in Ivry-sur-Seine on 23 June 1821. Baillio notes that other copies, including two at Versailles, are not by VLB. See the Baillio (1982) description. However, Angela Demutskiy believes that one of these is a signature copy, oil on canvas, 99 x 83 cm (38.9 x 32.6 cm), located at Versailles (acquired in 1836), currently on loan to the Museum of Fine Arts Marseilles (since 1949). Angela agrees that a weaker copy at Versailles, oil on canvas, 39.76 x 32.67 in (101 x 83 cm), is by an anonymous hand.

{"1 Self-portrait with my daughter, for M. d’Angiviller."}

{"1 Mme de Grollier."} This may be an erroneous repetition of the earlier portrait (listed under 1788), or perhaps a copy of that painting.

{"1 Le Bailly de Crussol."} This may be an erroneous repetition of the earlier 1787 portrait (listed under 1788), or perhaps a copy of that painting.

1789 "Melanie de Rochechoüart, Marquise d’Aumont, La duchesse de Piennes," oval, 28" x 22 1/2," signed and dated. Kunstmuseum, Lucerne, Switzerland. Connaissance des Arts, 320:52, Oct 1978 (detail, color). {"1 Mme d’Aumont."} [Sold at Christies, Rononcz, Hungary, July 5, 1907. The same (or another) VLB portrait of this sitter was sold April 13-14, 1945, for $6,500, at the sale of Vte V.M. Rosenthal.] Madeleine Melanie Henriette Charlotte de Rochechouart married Louis Marie Celeste d’Aumont on August 6, 1781. They had two sons (born 1782 and 1785). She died 21 April 1790. Her widower then married his mistress, Francoise Fortunee de Chauvigny de Blot, in 1791. [Information courtesy John R. Barberie, a cousin of the sitter.]

ca. 1789 "Yolande Martine de Polastron, duchess de Polignac," pastel, 15 3/4" x 12 5/8" (40 x 32 cm). Gramont collection. Les Gramont Portraits de famille; Baillio (2015), p. 254 (color). {"2 Msme de Polignac."}{"One day as I was doing her profile at Versailles . . ." - Souvenirs} It is unknown if this VLB intended this pastel to be one of the listed portraits of Duchess de Polignac for 1789, but it seems to correspond to her description in Souvenirs of painting a profile of the sitter at Versailles.

after 1790 “Duchesse de Polignac? (lady wearing a bonnet and scarf),” black and white chalk with stumping on gray-beige paper, 16 3/4” x 10 1/2” (42.2 x 26.9 cm), private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 255 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 140 (color). Sold by Christie's London, 4 July 2000, lot 184 for $21,341. This sketch may have been prepared from the above-listed pastel. However, it is believed that the costume dates to the early 1790s and was therefore prepared later.

{"2 Mme de Guiche, a pastel."}

{"1 Mme de Pienne."} See "Mme d’Aumont," above. Did VLB err and list the same sitter twice, or was "Mme de Pienne" a different sitter from "Melanie de Rochechoüart, Marquise d’Aumont, La duchesse de Piennes"?

1789 "Comtesse de La Châtre," oil on canvas, 45" x 34 1/2" (114.3 x 87.6 cm), not signed or dated, Metropolitan Museum of Art, N.Y. Published in Masters in Art as "Marquise de Jaucourt" (which was her title later in life); Baillio (1982), p. 84 (b&w); Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide, 1983 (color); Baillio (2015), p. 189 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 136 (color). {"1 Mme de la Châtre."} Marie Charlotte Louise Perrette Aglaé de La Châtre, 1762-1848. Her mother was Therese Tissier, and her father was Louis-Dominique Bontemps, the personal manservant to Louis XV. Her father’s sister was married to Nicolas Beaujon, whom VLB also painted. The sitter married her first husband, Claude-Louis La Châtre (1745-1824), comte (later duc) de La Châtre, on 2 June 1778. They divorced in 1793. On 9 January 1799, she married Arnail François, Marquis de Jaucourt (1757-1852). See the Baillio (1982) description.

1789 "Portrait of a Lady (Marquise de Fresnes d’Aguesseau?), oil on panel, 42 1/8" x 32 3/4" (107 x 83.2 cm), signed and dated: Mde LeBrun / 1789. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Art News, Feb 1946, p. 82; Gazette des Beaux Arts, May 1956, p. 248; Gazette des Beaux Arts, Nov 1980, p. 163 (b&w). {"1 Mme de Fresne-d’Aguesseau."} [Baillio notes that the sitter requested that VLB paint her with the same Wedgwood medallion worn by the Duchesse d’Orléans, in her painting from earlier in the year, which was very-well received.] Marie-Catherine de Lamoignon de Basville (ca. 1758-1849), who in 1775 married Henri-Cardin-Jean-Baptiste d’Aguesseau (d. 1826). He was the brother of Antoinette- Elizabeth- Marie d’Aguesseau, Comtesse de Ségur, whom VLB also painted. [Attribution by Joseph Baillio.]

1789 "Philippe Henri, Marquis de Ségur," oil on panel, 45 1/4" x 31 1/2" (115 x 80.1 cm). Musée National du Château de Versailles. This is a signature copy of the original, which is in the Baron de Villenueve’s collection, château des roches. Another copy is in the Musée des augustins of Toulouse. Antiques, Jan 1968, p. 113 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 165 (color). {"1 Le Maréchal de Ségur."} {"... in 1788 … I left … to spend a few days at Romainville, the home of the Maréchal de Ségur..." - Letter XI} ["He is posed in such a manner that the spectator is not immediately aware that the left sleeve is empty; the arm had been shot away at the battle of Laufeld in 1747."- Ilse Bischoff, Antiques, Jan 1968.] Lived 1724-1801, appointed minister of war in 1780, maréchal de France in 1783.

{"1 Madame and Monsieur, le Dauphin."} The original painting was executed in 1784 and is listed there; this may be a smaller autograph replica, executed after the death of the dauphin. One replica (the autograph one?) was 116 x 96 cm, formerly in the Roberto Polo collection, auctioned May 30, 1988 by Ader-Picard-Tajin, Paris.

{"1 Robert, the landscape painter."}

{"1 My daughter, small oval."}

1789 "Mme Chalgrin," oil on canvas, 58.5 x 70.3 cm, Private Collection, France. {"1 Mme Chalgrin."} Marguerite-Emilie-Félicité Vernet, baptised 1760, the daughter of Joeph Vernet and Cecilia Virginia Parker. In 1776 she married Jean-François-Thérèse Chalgrin, Intendant des Bâtiments de Monsieur, le comte de Provence. Their daughter, Louise-Josèphe Chalgrin, was born in 1777, and in 1794 married Claude Maurin Saugrain of the familiy of Parisian engravers. She was a close friend of Rosalie Bocquet Filleul and VLB. She was arrested at Mme Filleul’s home; both were guillotined in July 1794. [Biographical information by Oivier Blanc.] Olivier Blanc has identified this oil on canvas, which he photographed, as being VLB's portrait of Mme Chalgrin. In contrast, the 2015 Paris Exhibition, under Joseph Baillio's direction, presented a pastel on paper as VLB's painting. Olivier takes very strong exception to this, as he discusses here in French, including the fact that the hairstyle of the pastel dates from the Revolution of 1794-99 and thus is completely wrong for a 1789 portrait, and also the fact that the sitter's eye color is not the same as that shown in a portrait by Lépicié of Mme Chalgrin (before her marriage). The pastel had been published in 1910 by Edmond Cleray, Les arts et les artistes, as a work by Rosalie Filleul. Olivier first saw the pastel in 1992 in the Jean d'Arodes collection in Château de Chevenières (45230 Montbouy), and he agrees with the earlier view that it is the work of Mme Filleul.

1789 "Self Portrait," pastel on paper, 19 3/4" x 15 3/4" (50 x 40 cm), inscribed on reverse: 28. novbre 1816 / Légué par Mr Menageot / a Mme Nigris- / Ce dessin représente Mme Le Brun / il est fait par elle-même. Private Collection, L’Oeil, Jun 1993; Baillio (2015), p. 87 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 138 (color). {"1 Self portrait, pastel."} While this listing is placed in the "1789 section" and not the post-exile section "In Parma, Bologna, Turin and Florence" (below), it is possible that it refers to this pastel of VLB wearing simple traveling clothes. The pastel was a gift to the painter François Guillaume Ménageot, director of the Académie de France in Rome, and would have been prepared withint the first few months of VLB's exile from France.

{"1 The portrait of Joseph Vernet, now in the museum."} VLB erred in this listing; the painting was actually done in 1778, and is listed there.

1789 "Prince of Nassau," oil on canvas, 21 1/4" x 14 1/2", The winds of revolution : a loan exhibition for the benefit of the French Institute/Alliance Francaise, November 14-December 28, 1989 by Joseph Baillio, p. 44. {"1 Le Prince de Nassau, full-length."} VLB had painted the prince in 1776. See that listing for his earlier biography. After that date, he fought for Spain against the British, and became a successful mercenary for the Russians under Catherine II and Potemkin. In 1788, he destroyed the Ottoman fleet, and Catherine allowed him to acquire land holdings in Poland, then sent him on diplomatic missions. While in France, VLB apparently painted him for the second time. [Attribution and biographical information from Joseph Baillio.]

1789 "Self Portrait with Daughter (à la Grecque),"oil on panel, 51 1/8" x 37" (130 x 94 cm). Musée du Louvre, Paris. Antiques, Nov 1967, p. 706 (b&w); Fine Art Reproductions of Old & Modern Masters, New York Graphic Society, 1976, p. 121 (color); Baillio (1982), p. 75 (b&w); The Sweetness of Life (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 35 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 27 (color). {"1 Self-portrait, holding my daughter in my arms."}

{"1 Mme Raymond, with her child."}

{"2 Mme de Simiane."} See also portrait of 1783.

1789 "Mme Pierre Rousseau with her Daughter," oil on panel, 45 1/2" x 34" (115.5 x 86.5 cm), signed & dated (lower right): L. Vigee Le Brun f. 1789. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Beaux Arts, 7:4, Jun 1929 (b&w); J.F. Heim, C. Beraud, P. Heim, Les Salons de peinture de la Revolution francaise 1789-1799 (Paris, 1989) (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 34 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 31 (color).  {"2 Mme Rousseau."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1789 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale.] Marie-Adrienne Potain, daughter of Nicolas-Marie Potain. She was widowed from the architect Leroux, and in 1778 remarried to Pierre Rousseau. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Mme Duvernais."}

{"1 Mme de Saint-Alban."} Also listed in 1781.

{"1 Mme Savigni."} VLB had also listed a “Mme Savigny” for 1779, though that may have been a different sitter. Olivier Blanc suggests that the sitter for the 1789 portrait was: Mme Chabenat de Savigny. Marie Gassot de Férolles de Boisgisson, born ca. 1755 to René Gassot, esquire and Anne Madeleine Saumard. She was married 16 Nov. 1783 in Bourges (Cher) to Mathias de Chabenat de Savigny, capitaine commandant du Régiment Médoc et Chevalier de Saint-Louis (son of René, baron de Nohant et de Savigny). They had two Children: Etienne-Victor and Rose.

{"1 Mlle Dorion."} Also listed for 1768-1772.

"Mlle Contat," oil on board, oval, 30 3/4" x 24 3/4", in 1890 belonged to comte d’Armaillé. {"I had to leave several portraits unfinished, among others that of Mlle Contat..." - Letter XI} Louise Françoise Contat. [Description: Bust turned to the right, hair flowing down onto the shoulders. A red wrap, with a white bonnet. The head alone is finished, the costume is outlined and the hands hardly indicated.] Here is a portrait by Greuze (pastel; private collection, Paris). [Information and Greuze image from Olivier Blanc.]

1789 “A lady,” oil on canvas, oval. Musée de Quimper, France. [Thanks to Olivier Blanc, who provided the photograph. Olivier dated the painting, based upon the hair and clothing style. He suggests that perhaps the sitter is Mme de Savigny or Mme Duvernais. He is continuing to research the painting.]

1789 "Dauphin Louis Charles playing with a yo-yo [emigrette]" [attributed], Musée Leblanc-Duvernoy, Auxerre, France. La Revue du Louvre, 35:2:105, 1985 (b&w); color image provided by Claudia Solacini.

"Dauphin Louis Charles with a Dog," referenced by Baillio (1982) as exhibited in 1789 at the Salon de l’Académie Royale. Baillio suspected that the painting was destroyed during the French Revolution. Jana Talkenberg states that the painting had been in the Saint Cloud home, and was destroyed there June 1794. Jana provided this image, which is believed to be a copy by an unknown artist after VLB's original.

IN PARMA, BOLOGNA, TURIN AND FLORENCE [1789 & 1792]

1792 "Julie Le Brun, wearing a wreath of roses," oil on canvas, Galleria Nazionale, Parma. Museum Postcard. {"1 A head in oils for the academy of Parma."} {"As soon as I had returned to Parma [in 1792], where I had spent so little time previously en route to Rome, I was welcomed as a member of their Academy and I donated a small portrait of my daughter which I had just completed." - Chap. VIII}

1789 "Julie Le Brun, looking over her shoulder," 17 1/4" x 13 3/4" (43.8 x 34.8 cm), oil on panel, Pinacoteca Nazionale, Bologna. New International Illustrated Encyclopedia of Art, p. 4756. {"1 Small portrait in oils for the Institute of Bologna."} {"Three days after my arrival, on the third of November 1789, I was received as a member of the Academy and the Institute of Bologna." - Chap. I} [Baillio (1982) (p. 76) dates this 1792, and (p. 13) writes that VLB was elected to the Academy of Parma on Nov. 3, 1789. This would seem to be an error on his part, reversing Parma and Bologna.]

1792 "Mme de Gourbillon," signed and dated: L. E. Vigée / Le Brun / à Turin / 1792. Sold to M. Arthur Veil Picard in 1904. Published in vicomte Tony Henri Auguste de Reiset, Joséphine de Savoie, comtesse de Provence, 1753-1810, d’après des documents inédits, Paris, Émile-Paul frères, 1913. {"1 Mme de Gourbillon, attaché to Madame, wife of Louis XVIII."} {Turin: "... I went to see Madame, the wife of Louis XVIII...[who] arranged several excursions … with her lady-in-waiting, Mme du Gourbillon, and her son as companions." - Chap. X}

1792 {"1 Her son."} {Turin: "... I went to see Madame, the wife of Louis XVIII...[who] arranged several excursions … with her lady-in-waiting, Mme du Gourbillon, and her son as companions." - Chap. X}

1792 "Julie Le Brun as a Bather," oil on canvas, 28 3/8" x 21 7/8" (73 x 55.5 cm), signed and dated, private collection. Color photo from April 1986 advertisement of Galerie Fischer Luzern; Baillio (2015), p. 199 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 159 (color). {"1 My daughter as a bather."} {Turin: "I painted a bather using my daughter as model ..." - Chap. X} The painting was commissioned by Prince Nikolai Borisovich Yusupov, who acquired paintings from the most important painters of the era. 

1792 "Daughter of Engraver Porporati," Galleria Sabauda, Turin. Color image provided by Lucia Cardellini. {"1 Mlle Porporati."} {VLB stayed with Porporati & his daughter in Turin in 1789 (Chap. I), and he lent her a farmhouse on her return in 1792. "I found myself at a loss as to how I could repay M. Porporati for the good care he had taken of me; I suggested painting the portrait of his daughter..." - Chap. X}

1792 "Copy of Raphael's portrait of Bindo Altoviti," location unknown. {"1 Copy of Raphael’s portrait in Florence."} {"Needless to say I could not leave Florence without seeing Palazzo Altoviti and that splendid self portrait by Raphael." - Chap. I} {Upon returning to Florence in 1792: "I began to copy a portrait of Raphael..." - Chap. VIII} The famous portrait ca. 1512 by Raffaelo Sanzio (1483-1520) of Bindo Altoviti, oil on panel, 59.7 x 43.8 cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., had at the time been believed to be Raphael's self-portrait. Bindo Altoviti (1483-1520), was a banker and a patron of the arts. Raphael's portrait remained with the Altoviti family until 1808. Paul Lang in Baillio (2016) notes that a contemporary engraving, 7 1/4" x 5 3/8" (18.5 x 13.7 cm), Institut de France, Paris produced by Dominique Vivant Denon (1747-1825) shows VLB's "Self portrait (painting Marie Antoinette)" that she had prepared for the Uffizi Gallery (see below), except that Denon replaced the Queen's head with that of a mirrored version of Raphael's painting of Altoviti. This engraving by Denon, together with VLB's mention of the painting being located in the Altoviti palace, makes it clear that she was referring to the painting of Altoviti, as opposed to an actual self-portrait by Raphael.

{"Various landscapes from nature."}

PORTRAITS PAINTED IN ROME [mid-December 1789-April 1790; March 1791-April 14, 1792]

1789-90 "Self Portrait," Academy of St. Luke, Rome, Masters in Art, 1905, p. 106 (b&w). {"1 Self-portrait, bust for the Académie of Saint-Luc."} [Many copies exist; perhaps some are genuine, and others are not. The Ackland Art Center of the University of North Carolina has an anonymous copy. Another copy was sold at Christies. Another copy, is in Verviers, Belgium, where it was photographed by Lucia Cardellini.]

1790 "Self Portrait (painting Marie Antoinette)," oil on canvas, 39 3/8" x 31 7/8" (100 x 81 cm), Uffizi, Florence. Paintings in the Uffizi & Pitti Galleries, p. 619; Baillio (2015), p. 89 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 143 (color); Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 55 (color). {"1 The same for the gallery in Florence."} {"One day [in Florence] … I had the honor of being asked for my own self portrait as a gift to the town of Florence. I promised to deliver the painting as soon as I reached Rome." - Chap. I} {"Soon after my arrival in Rome I painted my self portrait for the gallery in Florence." - Chap. III} Tamás Strakovits notified us that a copy exists in the Watford Museum (U.K.), oil on canvas 96.5 x 82.2 cm. Another copy is owned by a private collector in Texas, having been purchased at a Hargesheimer & Gunther auction, Dusseldorf, Germany, March 2012.

1790 "Self Portrait," oil on canvas, 39" x 31-3/4," signed and dated: L. E. Vigée Le Brun 1790. National Trust, Ickworth, Suffolk. Treasure Houses of Britain, edited by Gervase Jackson-Stops, p. 569 (color). {"1 Copy of the same for Lord Bristol."} In place of Marie Antoinette, VLB has substituted a different head. It appears to be that of VLB’s daughter, Julie.

ca. 1789-90 "Anne Pitt, as Hebe," oil on canvas, 55 1/8" x 39 1/8" (140 x 99.5 cm), Hermitage. (This painting illustrated, from the Hermitage, may be an anonymous copy. The original portrait was inherited by her husband’s nephew, George Matthew Fortescue, and was at the Fortescue estate at Boconnoc, Cornwall.) An image of the original may appear in Archaeological Journal, xxxi, 26. {"1 Miss Pitt, daughter of Lord Camelfort."} {"She was sixteen years old and very pretty; I transformed her into the figure of Hebe seated upon some clouds with an eagle drinking from a goblet in her hand. I used a real eagle as my model and I thought he was going to make a meal of me." - Chap. III} Lived 1772-1864, the daughter of Thomas Pitt, first Baron Camelford (1737-93), a politician and art connoisseur. In 1792, she married William Wyndham Grenville, baron Grenville (1759-1834).

1791 "Hyacinthe Gabrielle Rolande, Countess of Mornington, afterwards Marchioness of Wellesley," oil on canvas, 39" x 29 1/2" (99.1 x 74.9 cm), signed and dated at left: L. Vigée Le Brun / Roma 1791. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco. Art News, 63:3, summer 1964 (b&w); Connoisseur, 157:116, Oct 1964; Antiques, Mar 1991, p. 497; Apollo, Mar 1991; The Sweetness of Life (color); Baillio (2015), p. 245 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 153 (color). {"1 Mlle Roland, later Lady Welesly."} Hyacinthe Gabrielle Roland, born ca. 1760, considered to be the daughter of Pierre Roland and Hyacinthe Gabrielle Daris of Paris. In 1785 she became the mistress of Richard Colley Wellesley, 2nd Earl of Mornington (from 1799 1st Marquess Wellesley). She bore him five children before they were married, in 1794. She died in 1816. Baillio felt that VLB was influenced by a copy or print of Rubens’s portrait (ca. 1638) of "Het Pelsken: Helene Fourment in a Fur" (detail).

{"1 Mme Silva, a Portuguese woman."} Dona Anna Felicia Coutinho Pereira De Souza Freire, born ca. 1765. She married an older widower, minister de Seabra e Silva (1732-1813), a secretary of d’Etat du marquis de Pombal then queen Marie de Portugal. Their first son, Manuel Maria Pereira Coutinho de Seabra e Sousa, born in 1787, became vicomte de Bahia in 1797. In 1803 he married Mlle Da Mota. Mme Seabra e Silva, known as Mme Silva, had at least two other sons, Manuel Ferreira de Seabra da Mota e Silva, baron de Mogofores, born 1798, and Antonio Luis, born 1799, who carried the title of vicomte de Seabra. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

1791 "Comtesse Anna Potocka," oil on canvas, 55 7/8" x 49 5/8" (142 x 126 cm), signed and dated lower right: L. E. Vigée Le Brun / a Rome / 1791. Private collection. Art in America, 70:74-81, Nov 1982; Burlington, May 1989, iii; Baillio (2015), p. 238 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 151 (color). {"1 Countess Potocka."} {"I painted her in a very picturesque style, leaning against a moss covered rock with mountain streams cascading down on the other side." - Chap. III} Anna Cetner (14 February 1764, Belz - 6 January 1814, Vienna) was a daughter of Ignacy Aleksander Cetner (1728, Brody, Ukraine - ca. 1800), provincial governor and marshal of Galicia, and his wife, Ludwika née Potocka (ca. 1744 - ?). The sitter's first husband was Prince Joseph Sanguszko, from whom she was widowed. In 1781 she married Prince Casimir Nestor Sapieha, divorcing him three years later. In 1790 she married Count Kajetan Potocki, divorcing him six years later. In 1803 she married her fourth husband, Vienna Charles Eugene, Prince de Lorraine (1751-1825). See the Baillio (1982) description.

1791 "Madame Adélaïde de France," oil on canvas, oval, 31 1/8" x 26 3/4" (79 x 68 cm), signed and dated lower right: L. E. Vigée Le Brun / A Rome. Musée Jeanne d’Aboville, La Fére. (A copy may be at Versailles.) Baillio (1982), p. 99 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 228 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 148 (color). {"2 Mesdames de France, Adélaïde and Victorie."} {"As soon as [the aunts to Louis XVI] arrived, they came to see me and asked me to paint them." - Chap. VII} Louise Marie Adélaïde de France, 23 March 1732-20 February 1800.

1791 "Madame Victoire de France," oil on canvas, oval, 30 3/4" x 26 3/8" (78.1 x 67 cm), signed and dated lower right: E. Vigée Le Brun/ à Rome 1791. Phoenix Art Museum. Baillio (1982), p. 98 (b&w); color photo provided by museum to Kevin Kelly; Baillio (2015), p. 229 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 149 (color). {"2 Mesdames de France, Adélaïde and Victorie."} {"As soon as [the aunts to Louis XVI] arrived, they came to see me and asked me to paint them." - Chap. VII} Louise Marie Thérèse Victoire de France, 11 May 1733-7 June 1799. See the Baillio (1982) description. Another version is located in Ingestre Hall Residential Arts Centre, Loire Valley, France.

{"As well as the above there are several landscape studies of the Roman countryside, both in oil and pastel."} {"[In Tivoli] we went to see the fountains...I drew them in pastels, wishing to catch the rainbow colours of these magnificent spouting waters. The olive clad mountain rising up on our left completed the delightful view." - Chap. IV} {"Near [Neptune’s Cave, in Tivoli], we found another waterfall which appears from under the arch of a bridge; I drew this scene too." - Chap. IV} {"...finding myself on the terrace of S. Trinità dei Monti one evening, I was struck by the beauty of the sunset; as I had no other paper on my person except the note from M. Laborde … I took the bill of payment … and drew the sunset upon it." - Chap. IV}

1789 "Frederick Augustus Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol," oil on canvas. Frederick Augustus Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol (1 August 1730, Suffolk – 8 July 1803, Lazio). In 1752, he married Elizabeth Davers (1 February 1733 - 19 December 1800). The couple had four sons and three daughters. Philanthropist and art collector, he was ordained and had a career in the Anglican church, though he was considered licentious and once referred to himself as agnostic.

IN NAPLES [April 1790-March 1791]

1790 "Countess Ecaterina Vassilievna Skavronskaya, née Engelhardt," oil on canvas, 53 1/8" x 37 3/8" (135 x 95 cm), signed and dated at left, above the sofa: L. E. Vigée Le Brun / a Naple en 1790. Musée Jacquemart-André, Paris. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 101 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 86 (b&w); museum postcard; Baillio (2015), p. 237 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 144 (color). {"1 Countess Scavronska, three-quarter length."} {"...only two days after my arrival [in Naples] I began a full length painting. The ambassadress posed holding a medallion in one hand bearing the portrait of her husband." - Chap. V} {"I am painting Mme de Scavronski, the Ambassadress of Russia, who is a fresh, pretty and most excellent person." - letter to Comtesse du Barry, dated July 2, 1790, cited by Baillio (1982), p. 85.} A sketch, in graphite with notations of colors and textures, was illustrated in The Sweetness of Life and is now in Musée Jacquemart-André, Paris. Ecaterina Vassilievna Skavronskaya (1761-1829) was a daughter of Basil Andreivitch Engelhardt of Smolensk and his wife, Helena Alexandrovna Potemkin. The sitter was a niece of Catherine II’s favorite, Prince Grigori Alexandrovitch Potemkin. She was married to Count Pavel Martynovich Skavronsky (born 1757), and was widowed in 1793. In 1798 she married Count Giulio Litta, whom VLB also painted. See the Baillio (1982) description.

1790 "Countess Ecaterina Vassilievna Skavronskaya," drawing in graphite. Bulletin des Musées de France, 10:Dec 1935, p. 161. {Not listed or mentioned by VLB}

1790 "Countess Ecaterina Vassilievna Skavronskaya, née Engelhardt," (bust length, looking up with antique drapery over her hair), oil on canvas, unlocated. A.M. Lusheff, Album of Portraits of Famous Russians, Saint Petersburg, 1870, no. 383; color photo from Witt Library. {"2 Two busts of the same."} [Helm, p. 208 cites as attributed to VLB a knee-length portrait in the Youssoupoff collection, showing the sitter holding a book on her knees, wearing a white dress, and a beige shawl edged with black. Baillio (1982), p. 87, also mentions a supposed portrait of this sitter, located in The Metropolitan Museum of Art and inscribed with VLB’s name, though he obviously doesn’t agree with this attribution. Also see portrait of 1796.]

1790 "Countess Ecaterina Vassilievna Skavronskaya, née Engelhardt," oil on canvas, 21 1/2" x 17 3/4" (54.8 x 45.2 cm), signed and dated lower left: Le Brun / 1790. Helm, 1915, facing p. 126; Connaissance des Arts, 260:33, Oct 1973. {"2 Two busts of the same."}

1790 "Emma Hart, the Future Lady Hamilton, as Ariadne," oil on canvas, 53 1/8" x 62 1/4" (135 x 158 cm), signed and dated lower left, on tambourine: L. E. Vigée Le Brun naples / 1790. Private Collection. Art in America, Nov 1982, p. 77 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 88 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 23 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 15 (color). {"1 Lady Hamilton, as a reclining Bacchante."} {"I painted Mme Hart as a bacchante, reposing by the side of the sea holding a cup in her hand." - Chap. V} {"I am also painting a very beautiful woman, Mrs. Hart, who is a friend of the English ambassador. In a large painting I have made her into a cheerful Ariadne, her face lending itself to this choice." - letter to Mme du Barry, 2 July 1790, cited by Baillio (1982), p.89. [Baillio points out that the portrait has elements of both Bacchante and Ariadne.]} Amy Lyon (26 April 1765, Ness, Cheshire, England – 15 January 1815, Calais, France). In 1782, she gave birth to a daughter (Emma Carew) by Charles Francis Greville (12 May 1749 – 23 April 1809), who had Amy change her name to Emma Hart. He arranged for her to pose for George Romney and other artists, and she became famous for her beauty. Rather than marry her, Greville set her up with his widowed uncle, Sir William Hamilton (13 December 1730 – 6 April 1803), who married Emma on 6 September 1791. She later became the lover of Admiral Viscount Horatio Nelson (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805), and gave birth to the latter’s daughter, Horatia Nelson (January 29, 1801 – March 6, 1881). See the Baillio (1982) description.

1792 "Lady Hamilton as a Sibyl," oil on canvas, 54 5/8" x 39 3/4" (73 x 57.2 cm), Connoisseur, May 1965, p. xxvi (color); Baillio (1982), p. 101 (b&w); The Sweetness of Life (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 247 (color). Bust-length copy by VLB exists. Other copies by her may exist. {"1 The same as a sibyl, full-length."} {"...I painted Lady Hamilton again as a sibyl..." - Chap. V} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited at the Salon of 1798.] This 3/4 length portrait was prepared for the duc de Brissac, but remained with VLB owing to Brissac's murder in September 1792. It was VLBs favorite painting. [The Kimbell exhibit and catalogue (Baillio (1982), p. 100) displayed a copy in black chalk and brown wash, 12 3/4" x 9 3/8," Private collection. See the Baillio (1982) description. However, as of 4 July 1985, Baillio decided that the drawing was not by VLB, per a note that he recorded at the Witt Library.]

1790-91 "Emma Hamilton as Bacchante," oil on canvas, 52 1/8" x 41 1/2" (132.5 x 105.5 cm), Lady Lever Art Gallery, Port Sunlight, England. Cited in Baillio (1982); Art and Antiques, Dec 1987, p. 76; Baillio (2015), p. 246 (color). {"1 The same as a bacchante dancing with a tambourine."}

1792 "Lady Hamilton as the Cumaean Sibyl," oil on canvas, 28 3/4" x 22 1/2" (73 x 57.2 cm), signed and dated lower left: L.E. Vigee Le Brun / a Rome 1792, private collection. Baillio (2016), p. 157 (color). {"1 Head of the same as a sibyl."}{"Later when I painted Lady Hamilton again as a sibyl for the Duc de Brissac, I decided to make a quick copy of the head and send it as a present to Sir William, who without hesitating sold it." - Chap. V} In Baillio (2016), Stéphane Guégan writes that the pentimenti shows that this painting was preliminary to the 3/4 length version prepared for the duc de Brissac, so perhaps this was not the copy VLB made for Sir William Hamilton.

1790 "Maria Theresa, later Empress of Austria," oil on canvas, 47 5/8" x 33" (121 x 84 cm). Museo e Gallerie Nazionali di Capodimonte, Naples. Baillio (2015), p. 225 (color). A copy, oil (on canvas or panel?), 13 3/4" x 11" (35 x 28 cm), is at Condé Chantilly, France; color photo by Francis Kelly. A bust (or a detail) is supposedly at Versailles. Another copy is at the castle at Namest nad Oslavou, Czech Republic. {"1 Princess Maria Theresa who married the Emperor Francis II."} {"...the Queen of Naples wished to commission a portrait of her two eldest daughters, so I began immediately...the eldest married the Emperor of Austria, Francis II..." - Chap. VI} Maria Theresa of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (6 June 1772 - 13 April 1807) was the eldest child of Ferdinand III of Sicily (also known as Ferdinand IV of Naples) and his wife Maria Carolina of Austria (a sister of Marie Antoinette). On 15 September 1790, the sitter married her first cousin, Archduke Francis of Austria (1768-1835), whom in 1792 would become the last Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, and in 1804, the founder and first emperor of Austria.

1790 "Maria Luisa Amelia, later Grand Duchesse of Tuscany," oil on canvas, 46 7/8" x 32 1/4" (119 x 82 cm), signed and dated lower left: L.E. Vigée Le Brun a Naples 1790. Museo e Gallerie Nazionali di Capodimonte, Naples. Baillio (2015), p. 226 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 147 (color). A copy is at Condé Chantilly, France. {"1 Princess Maria Louisa, who married the Grand Duke of Tuscany."} {"...the Queen of Naples wished to commission a portrait of her two eldest daughters, so I began immediately...the second, Louise, married the Grand Duke of Tuscany. Louise was extremely ugly, and pulled such faces that I was reluctant to finish her portrait." - Chap. VI} Maria Luisa Amelia Teresa (27 July 1773 - 19 September 1802), was the second child of Ferdinand III of Sicily (also known as Ferdinand IV of Naples) and his wife Maria Carolina of Austria (a sister of Marie Antoinette). On 15 August 1790, the sitter married her cousin, Archduke Ferdinand of Austria (1769-1824). She died in childbirth.

1790 "Francesco di Borbone, later King of the Two Sicilies," oil on canvas, 48 3/8" x 35 3/4" (123 x 91 cm). Museo e Gallerie Nazionali di Capodimonte, Naples. Baillio (1982), p. 91 (b&w); Art Journal, 42:4:335-8, Winter 1982; Baillio (2015), p. 227 (color). {"1 Le Prince héréditaire, father of the Duchesse de Berry."} {"When the Queen left [for Vienna to arrange her daughters’ marriages], I painted the Prince Royal." - Chap. VI} Lived 19 August 1777-8 November 1830, a son of Ferdinand III of Sicily (also known as Ferdinand IV of Naples) and his wife Maria Carolina of Austria (a sister of Marie Antoinette). The sitter ruled 1825-30. See the Baillio (1982) description.

1790 "Maria Cristina, future Queen of Sardinia," oil on canvas, 48 3/8" x 35 3/4" (123 x 91 cm). Museo e Gallerie Nazionali di Capodimonte, Naples. Vigée LeBrun, p. 70 (Doubleday, 1903); Baillio (2015), p. 227 (color). A small copy by VLB, oil on panel, 14 1/2" x 10 1/2," is at Museo del Prado, Madrid. {"1 Princess Marie Christine."} Lived 17 January 1779-11 March 1849, another child of Ferdinand III of Sicily (also known as Ferdinand IV of Naples) and his wife Maria Carolina of Austria (a sister of Marie Antoinette). Married in 6 April 1807 to Prince Charles Felix of Savoy (6 April 1765-27 April 1831), who became king of Sardinia (1821-1831).

1791 "Giovanni Paisiello," oil on canvas, 51 1/2" x 38 3/4" (131 x 98.5 cm), inscribed lower left, on cover of musical score: Rondo de Nina / A mei ben quando verrai / musica / Del Sigr Giovanni Paisiello. Inscribed lower left, on scroll: Te deum / Messa in musica / in occasione del felice viaggio / delle Loro Maest àdelle Sicile / 1791. Musée National du Château de Versailles, Antiques, Jan 1968, p. 113 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 93 (b&w); Art in America, 70:74-81, Nov 1982 (b&w); J.F. Heim, C. Beraud, P. Heim, Les Salons de peinture de la Revolution francaise 1789-1799 (Paris, 1989) (b&w); The Sweetness of Life (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 232 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 154 (color). {"1 Paesïello, composer."} {"...Paësiello ... continued composing while he sat for me... I froze in these apartments; I was painting Paësiello at the time and both of us sat there blowing on our fingers to warm them. I had a fire lit ... but ... the smoke suffocated us... I cannot imagine how I came to finish his portrait." - Chap. VI} Giovanni Paisiello (9 May 1740, Taranto – 5 June 1816, Naples), Italian composer. In 1772, he married Cecilia Pallini (d.1815). See the Baillio (1982) description.

1791 "Prince Carlo Gastone della Torre di Rezzonico," oil on canvas, 34 1/2" x 29 1/2", private collection, Switzerland; image from Robilant & Voena gallery.{"1 Prince Resoniko."} [Image spotted by Angela Demutskiy.]

1791 "Frederick Augustus Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol and Bishop of Derry," oil on canvas, 39 3/8" x 29 1/2" (100 x 74.9 cm), signed and dated: L. E. Vigée Le Brun Naples 1791. National Trust, Ickworth, Suffolk. Apollo, 116:410, Dec 1982 (b&w); Apollo 99:431, Jun 1994 (b&w); Apollo, May 1995, p. 36; Treasure Houses of Britain, edited by Gervase Jackson-Stops, p. 276 (color); The Sweetness of Life (b&w). {"1 Lord Bristol, a three-quarter length."} {"... I painted another portrait of Lord Bristol, whom I encountered once again in Naples. It could be said that this man spent his entire life on Vesuvius for he climbed up the volcano every day." - Chap. V}

{"1 The Balli de Litta."} Lived 1763-1839. Born in Italy, his father was a general in the Austrian Army and his mother came from an old Italian noble family called Visconti. He became a knight of the Maltese Order at the age of 17, and was sent to Russia in 1789. For his service in the war against Sweden he was awarded the rank of a counter-admiral and appointed to the order of St. George. He became a Russian citizen in 1798 and served in the government. He was the second husband of another VLB sitter, Ekaterina Skavronskaia née Engelhardt. [Information from Jana Talkenberg.]

1791 "Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples," oil on canvas, 21" x 15 1/8," was destroyed by fire July 1940 in Providence, Rhode Island. Baillio (1982), p. 92 (b&w). A copy, oil (on canvas or wood?), 13 3/4" x 11" (35 x 28 cm), exists at Condé Chantilly. [*] Another copy, oil on panel, 14" x 10 1/2", was reported at Museo del Prado, Madrid. {"1 The Queen of Naples."} {The Queen of Naples, without being as pretty as her younger sister, the Queen of France, resembled her greatly..." - Chap. VII} Lived 1752-1814, married in 1768 to Ferdinand (1751-1825). He was King of Naples (as Ferdinand IV, from 1759, driven out by French in 1799 and 1806, restored 1815, united Naples into Two Sicilies in 1816), King of Sicily (as Ferdinand III, from 1759, united Sicily into Two Sicilies in 1816), and King of Two Sicilies (as Ferdinand I, 1816-25).

{"This does not include several studies of Vesuvius and the area around Naples."} {"...we saw an enormous column of white smoke rise from the crater, together with clouds of ash and lava, which turned silver when lit by the sun. I painted this effect for I thought it divine." - Chap. VI}

1790-91 "Head of a Girl, Turned to the Left," black chalk on wood, 10 1/2" x 14." A note in French on the reverse states that Mme. Le Brun made this drawing on a door in the Casino [summer house] of Sir William Hamilton, British Minister to Naples, by whose order it was preserved. Apollo, Jun 1936, p. 354; The Sweetness of Life (b&w). {"...I sketched two small heads in charcoal upon one of the doors..." - Chap. V, Note 7} Neither VLB nor Hamilton identified the subject, but she resembles Emma Hart, the future Emma Hamilton.

1792 {At the famous waterfall of Terni: "I drew the picturesque entrance to this cave..." - Chap. VIII}

IN VENICE [1792]

1792? "Isabella Marini," oil on paper, mounted on canvas, 19" x 13 7/8" (48.3 x 35.2 cm), signed and dated lower left: L. E. Vigée Le Brun / pour son ami De Non /a Venise 1792. Toledo Museum of Art. Baillio (1982), p. 102 (b&w); Art International, Jul/Aug 1983, p. 27; Baillio (2015), p. 235 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 160 (color). Anonymous copy exists. {"1 Mme Marini."} {"M. Denon also asked me to paint the portrait of his friend Mme Marini [later wife of Count Albridgi] ..." - Chap. IX} A crude and tiny sketch, 5" x 3 5/8", red chalk, pen and brown ink, brown wash heightened with white, on light blue paper, discovered at the Witt Library, was alleged to be by VLB. Isabella Marini, née Teotochi (1760-1837), was married to Carlo Antonio Marin, but engaged in an affair with the engraver Dominique Vivant Denon, who asked his friend VLB to prepare this portrait. The sitter would divorce Marin in 1795 and marry Giuseppe Albrizzi, but Denon treasured the painting until his death. See the Baillio (1982) description.

{Milan, 1792: "The countryside around Milan is so ravishing that I could not stop sketching it." - Chap. X}

1789-1792 Sketchbook of drawings. Private collection. This sketchbook had been lot 380 of the November 4-5, 1937 Paris estate sale of Louis Deglatigny, Rouen. Baillio (1982) expressed the belief that this one had been completed in Italy. Two other sketchbooks from the Deglatigny sale were believed to have been filled during social gatherings in St. Petersburg, and are listed in that section, below. Baillio (1982) did not question the authorship of the sketchbooks, but more recently has suggested that at least the St. Petersburg sketches were not done by VLB, but by her sister-in-law's eldest brother, Auguste Louis Jean Baptiste Rivière, who accompanied VLB from 1792-1801. It is unknown whether that doubt only pertains to the two sketchbooks from St. Petersburg, or also these two.

1789-1792 Sketchbook of drawings. Private collection. This sketchbook had been lot 381 of the November 4-5, 1937 Paris estate sale of Louis Deglatigny, Rouen. Baillio (1982) expressed the belief that this one had been completed in Italy. Two other sketchbooks from the Deglatigny sale were believed to have been filled during social gatherings in St. Petersburg, and are listed in that section, below. Baillio (1982) did not question the authorship of the sketchbooks, but more recently has suggested that at least the St. Petersburg sketches were not done by VLB, but by her sister-in-law's eldest brother, Auguste Louis Jean Baptiste Rivière, who accompanied VLB from 1792-1801. It is unknown whether that doubt only pertains to the two sketchbooks from St. Petersburg, or also these two.

IN VIENNA [1792-1795]

1793 "Countess Siemontkowsky Bystry," oil on canvas, 32" x 24 3/8" (81 x 62 cm), signed and dated at lower left: L E. Vigee LeBrun / a Vienne 1793. Christie's Sale 11932- Revolution (13 April 2016). {"1 Mme Bistri, a Polish woman."} {In Milan: "During the last concert I attended I found myself sitting next to a very beautiful and charming Polish woman, known as Countess Bistri." - Chap. X; VLB accompanied M and Mme Bistri to Vienna, where "I completed the portrait of the charming Mme Bistri..." - Chap. XI}A related portrait (probably after VLB), 31" x 25," was located in the Witt Library. A profile, attributed to VLB, is also said to represent this sitter (though Olivier Blanc has noted that the profile looks almost exactly like the profile of Marie Caroline von Thun, Lady Guisford, listed in the next section). Anna Bystra, née Rakowska (1770-1828), had been widowed from her first husband, Ignacy Kordysz, in 1788.

1793 "Count Siemontkowsky Bystry," oil on canvas, 32" x 24 3/8" (81 x 62 cm), signed and dated at lower left: L E. Vigee LeBrun / a Vienne 1793. Christie's Sale 11932- Revolution (13 April 2016). [VLB only mentioned Mdm. Bistras portrait, previous listing.] Gerrit Walczak identified the sitter as Romuald Joachim Bystry (ca. 1756-ca. 1824). Timothy F. Boettger indicated that he did not properly hold the title of Count. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006), lists a pastel of Count Bystry by VLB.

{"1 Mlle de Kaquenet."}

1793 "Theresa, Countess Kinsky," oil on canvas, 53" x 39" (137.5 x 100 cm), Norton Simon Museum of Art, Pasadena, California. Art Journal, Fall 1972, p. 36; Gazette des Beaux Arts, Nov 1980, p. 165 (b&w); The Norton Simon Museum by Frank Herrmann, p. 77 (color). {"1 Countess Kinska, three-quarter length."} {"...three in particular were noted for their beauty: … the charming Countess Kinska, née Countess Diedrochsten." - Chap. XI} Countess Therese Kinsky née Dietrichstein (11 August 1768 - 16 September 1822), the daughter of Prince Johann Baptist Karl Dietrichstein (1728-1808) and Countess Marie Christine Thun (1738-1788). She was married 10 November 1787 to Count Philipp Josef Kinsky v.Wchinitz u.Tettau (1770-1827). They were divorced, and she remarried to Count Maximilian von Merveldt (d. 1815). [Identified by Angela Demutskiy.] VLB also painted her brother, in St. Petersburg.

"Countess Kinsky," Angelica Goodden, in The Sweetness of Life, p. 310, reports that VLB bequeathed a portrait of this sitter, wearing a red shawl and a turban, to the Berlin Academy. Perhaps this is that portrait. {"1 The same, half-length."}

1793 "Countess Maria Theresia Bucquoi, née Paar," oil on canvas, 53 1/2" x 39" (135.9 x 99.1 cm), signed and dated lower right: L. E. Vigée Le Brun / à Vienne 1793. Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Minneapolis Institute of Arts Bulletin, 64:115, 1979-80; Gazette des Beaux Arts, ser 6:93, Supp. 43, Apr 1979 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 26 (color); museum slide; Baillio (2015), p. 253 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 163 (color). {"1 Countess Buquoi, sister of the Prince de Paar."} {"... Prince Parr invited me to his home to see the large portrait of his sister, the kind and warm Countess Bucquoi, which I had recently finished and he had only just received." - Chap. XII} Maria Theresia Paar (1746-1818) was the daughter of Prince Johann Joseph Paar (1719-1792) and Countess Antonia Esterhazy (1719-1771). She married Count Johann Josef Bucquoi (died 1803). See the Baillio (1982) description.

"Countess Maria Elisabeth Razumovskaya," the painting is unlocated, but an engraving of VLB’s painting by Franz-Valentine Durmer was published in Gazette des Beaux Arts, Nov 1980, p. 164 (b&w). {"1 Countess Rasowmoffska."} {"Three in particular were noted for their beauty: … the wife of the Russian ambassador, Count Rasowmoffski ..." - Chap. XI} Countess Maria Elisabeth Razumovskaya, née Countess von Thun und Hohenstein (25 April 1764-1806). She was a daughter of Imperial Chamberlain Count Franz Joseph Anton von Thun und Hohenstein (1734-1801) and Countess Maria Wilhelmine von Thun und Hohenstein, née Countess Uhlfeldt (13 June 1744, Vienna - 18 May 1800, Vienna). On 4 November 1788, she married count André Kirillovich Razumovsky (Андре́й Кири́ллович Разумо́вский), later Prince (2 November 1752 - 23 September 1836), the Russian ambassador at the court of Habsburgs and celebrated patron of Beethoven. Also available is a miniature of the sitter (left) and her two sisters, by Heinrich Friedrich Füger. VLB painted a number of the sitter's relatives: (1) her mother, Countess Maria Wilhelmine von Thun und Hohenstein; (2) her sister, Princess Maria Christiane Josepha Lichnowskaya (25 July 1765-1841); (3) her sister, Lady Marie Caroline Anna Gillford (1769-1800); (4) her sister-in-law, Princess Maria Grigorievna Golitzyna (1772-1865); (5) her niece, Countess Maria Vassilievna Kotchoubey (1779-1844); (6) her cousin, Lev Aleksandrovitch Narishkin (1785-1846); and (7) her cousin by marriage, Aleksandr Lvovich Narishkin (1760-1826). [Biographical information from Joseph Baillio, Angela Demutskiy, and Jana Talkenberg. Jana supplied the photo of the miniature.]

{"1 Countess Palfi."}

1793 "Furstin Charlotte Liechtenstein as Aurora," Possession of Fursten Liechtenstein. {"1 Princess Liechtenstein, full-length."}

1793 "Countess Kagenek as Flora," oil on canvas (within a painted oval), 29 5/8" x 24 5/8" (75.3 x 62.6 cm), signed and dated lower left L.E. Vigée LeBrun/ a Vienne 1792 and inscribed on the reverse of the canvas Flore. Comtesse de Kagenek/ age de 13 ans/ née le 23 septembre 1779. Fondation Bemberg, Toulouse. Apollo, Jun 1985, p. 378; Sotheby, Jan 2003; Baillio (2015), p. 241 (color). As of May 2010, the painting was on exhibit at l'hôtel d'Assézat. {"... I found lodgings within the city of Vienna … and immediately set about painting the portrait of the Ambassador of Spain’s daughter, Mlle Kaguenek, a very pretty sixteen year old..." - Chap. XII} Flora Kageneck (1779-1857), the daughter of Count Frederich Kagenek and Countess Maria Theresa Salm Reiffersheidt. More importantly she was a cousin of Prince Clemens von Metternich (1773-1859). Even though she married Count Eugene Wrbna in 1798 the couple lived in the Metternich residence where the Countess assumed the role of hostess to foreign dignitaries during the Congress of Vienna (September 1814- June 1815).

1793 "Baron and later Count Grigory Alexandrovich Stroganov," unlocated. {"1 Baron Stroganoff, half-length."}{"A few days after my arrival in Vienna, I made the acquaintance of the Baron and Baroness Stroganoff, who both begged me to paint their portraits." - Chap. XI} Grigory Alexandrovich Stroganov (ca. 1769-1857), a son of Alexander Nikolayevich Stroganov and Elizaveta Alexandrovna Zagryazhskaya. He was granted the title of count in 1826. VLB painted this unlocated bust of the sitter, as well as the 3/4 length portrait below, and a portrait of his wife.

1793 "Baron and later Count Grigory Alexandrovich Stroganov," oil on canvas, oval, 36 1/4" x 26" (92 x 66 cm), signed and dated at left: L. E. Vigée Le Brun / a Vienne, 1793. Hermitage. Stroganoff: The Palace and Collections of a Russian Noble Family, p. 147 (color); Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p.117 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 265 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 168 (color). {"1 Baron Stroganoff, hands showing."} {"A few days after my arrival in Vienna, I made the acquaintance of the Baron and Baroness Stroganoff, who both begged me to paint their portraits." - Chap. XI} Grigory Alexandrovich Stroganov (ca. 1769-1857), a son of Alexander Nikolayevich Stroganov and Elizaveta Alexandrovna Zagryazhskaya. He was granted the title of count in 1826.

1793 "Baroness Anna Sergeevna Stroganov, née Princess Troubetzkoy," 37 1/2" x 29 3/4," signed and dated. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 103 (b&w); color photo provided by Mark Caywood of the Kimbell, who located it in a sale catalogue. {"A few days after my arrival in Vienna, I made the acquaintance of the Baron and Baroness Stroganoff, who both begged me to paint their portraits." - Chap. XI} Born Princess Troubetzkoy, lived 1765-1824; the sister of Countess Ecaterina Sergeevna Somoilov, another of VLB’s sitters.

1793 "Count Grigory Ivanovich Chernyshev Holding a Mask," oil on canvas, 22" x 17 3/8" (56 x 44 cm), Hermitage. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 115 (b&w); Paintings in the Hermitage by Colin Eisler (color); Baillio (2016), p. 166 (color). A smaller version (by VLB?) existed. {"1 Count Czernicheff, with black domino and mask."} Grigory Ivanovich Chernyshev (Григорий Иванович Чернышев) (1762-1838), a son of Count Ivan Grigorievich Chernyshev (d. 1797) and Anna Alexandrovna Islenieva (1740-1794). In 1796, the sitter married Countess Elizabeth Chernysheva, née Kvashnin-Samarin (1773-1828).

1793-94 "Princess Pélagie Roza Potocka Sapieha," oil on canvas, 54 3/4" x 39 3/8" (139 x 100 cm), Royal Castle, Warsaw. Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 117 (color). {"1 Countess Zamoiska [sic], dancing with shawl." } Jerzy Mycielski & Stanislav Wasylewski, Portrety Polskie Elzbiety Vigée-Lebrun (1927) recognized that VLB had erred and that the model for this painting was actually Princess Pélagie Roza Potocka. Some believe that the Russian listing "1 Princess Sapieha just past the knee, dancing with a tambourine." was instead Countess Zamoiska (i.e., that VLB reversed the two sitters), while others think the Russian listing is indeed another portrait of Princess Sapieha. Pélagie Roza Potocka (1775-1846), the daughter of Count Stanislaw Feliks Potocki and Józefina Amalia Mniszech. She married around 1793 to Prince Franciszek Sapieha-Rozanski (1772-1829), and divorced him in 1806. She remarried the same year, to Prince Pawel Sapieha-Suffczynski (1781-1846). VLB painted the sitter again, see below in this section.

1794 "Countess Sophia von Fries as Sappho playing a lyre," oil on canvas, National Castle Museum of Jaromerice, Czech Republic. Photo from 1995 catalogue, "Napoleon and His Time," from an exhibition at Slavkov (Austerlitz). {"1 Mlle la Comtesse de Fries as Sappho, holding a lyre and singing, three-quarter length."} {"Mlle de Fries was an excellent musician, and when I painted her portrait, I wanted to depict her as Sappho, singing and accompanying herself upon the lyre." - Chap. XI} Countess Anna Philippina Johanna Sophia von Fries (1769-before 1842), daughter of Count Johann von Fries (1719-1785) and Anne d’Echerny. On 7 Aug 1794, she married Count Heinrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz (1770-1842). [Communication of Timothy F. Boettger -- Source: http://archiver.rootsweb.com/th/read/GEN-ROYAL/2004-12/1101908159 (Accessed 14 Feb 2007).] [Photo forwarded by Jana Talkenberg.] VLB also painted the sitter’s siblings, Countess von Schönfeld and Count Moritz von Fries.

1794 "La duchesse de Guiche," oil on canvas, 22 1/2" x 18 1/8" (57 x 46 cm), signed and dated: Vigée / Lebrun à / Vienne 1794. Private collection. Les Gramont Portraits de famille (color); L’Oeil, Jun 1993, p. 27 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 259 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 170 (color). {"1 Duchess de Guiche wearing a blue turban, half-length."} {"I met the Duchesse de Guiche, whose delightful face had not changed." - Chap. XII} The daughter of the Duc and Duchesse de Polignac, Louise Françoise Gabrielle Aglaé was born May 7, 1768. She had married on July 4, 1780 (at age 12!), to Antoine Louis Marie de Gramont (17 August 1755 – 28 August 1836). He was known by the courtesy title comte de Louvigny before his marriage; upon his marriage he was accorded the style duc de Guiche, and then in 1801 he succeeded a cousin as duc de Gramont and Prince of Bidache. VLB also painted the two daughters of the couple, Aglaé Davidoff and Countess Tankerville. The duchesse de Guiche died in 1803 in a fire at Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh, Scotland. She was interned there, though in 1825 her body was returned to France.

1793 "Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski in a red cloak," oil on canvas, 39 3/8" x 30 1/2" (102. x 77.2 cm), signed and dated lower right: E. Vigée Le Brun à Vienne 1793. Collections of the Ciechanowiecki Foundation, Royal Castle, Warsaw. Burlington, 111:461, Jul 1969; Baillio (1982), p. 105 (b&w); Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 103 (color). {"2 Portraits of Prince Schotorinski, one with cloak."} {"There were large gatherings of Polish society at the home of Princess Czartoryski, another wonderful hostess. Her husband was a charming man..." - Chap. XII} Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski (1 December 1734, Gdańsk (Danzig) – 19 March 1823, Sieniawa), a son of August Aleksander Czartoryski (9 November 1697, Warsaw – 4 April 1782, Warsaw) and Maria Zofia Sieniawska (1698 – 21 May 1771, Warsaw). On 18 November 1761, in Wołczyn, Poland, he married Izabela Fleming (3 March 1746, Warsaw – 15 July 1835, Wysocko). The sitter was a famous statesman, candidate to the Polish throne in 1764, and later field marshal of Austria. VLB also painted his sister, Isabella, in 1782 and below, and his daughter, Princess Maria von Würtemberg, listed later this year. See the Baillio (1982) description.

1793 "Prince Adam Kazimierz Cyartoryski in a blue cloak," oil on canvas, 39 1/2" x 30 3/8" (100.2 x 77.2 cm), signed and dated at right: Lu.E. Vigée Le Brun à Vienne / 1793. Private collection. Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 109 (color). {"2 Portraits of Prince Schotorinski, one with cloak."} {"There were large gatherings of Polish society at the home of Princess Czartoryski, another wonderful hostess. Her husband was a charming man..." - Chap. XII}

1793 "Princess Isabella Lubomirska, née Czartoryska," oil on canvas, 41 1/8" x 31 7/8" (104.5 x 81 cm). Inscribed "I.LUB" on the letter. Lvovskaya Galeria, Lvov, Ukraine. Bulletin du Musée National de Varsovie," XX, No. 1, 1979, p. 24, fig. 6. Izabele Elzbiete Anne Teofile Czartoryska (21 May 1736 - 11 November 1816, Vienna), a daughter of August Aleksander Czartoryski (9 November 1697, Warsaw – 4 April 1782, Warsaw) and Maria Zofia Sieniawska (1698 – 21 May 1771, Warsaw). She was the sister of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski, listed above. They were cousins of King Stanislas Poniatowski. On 9 June 1753, the sitter married Stanislaw Lubomirski (25 December 25, Łancut - 12 August 1782, Łancut). Also see a painting for the princess listed under 1799. The couple had four daughters: (1) Elżbieta Lubomirska (1755–1783); (2) Aleksandra Lubomirska (1760–1836), who on 2 June 1776 would marry Stanisław Kostka Potock; (3) Konstancja Małgorzata Lubomirska (1761–1840), who in 1782 would marry Seweryn Rzewuski; and (4) Julia Lubomirska (1764 – 22 August 1794, Kraków), who in 1785 would marry Jan Nepomucen Potocki (8 March 1761 – 23 December 1815). Lacking a son, the couple raised a distant relative, Prince Henryk Lubomirski (15 Sep 1777-1850), the son of Prince Jozef Lubomirski and Ludwika Sosnowska. An oil on canvas copy, 38 1/2" x 26 3/8", executed in Kraków in 1875 by Wincenty Sleńdziński, is at the former Lubomirski estate, Łancut, in southeastern Poland. Sleńdziński’s copy may have been the one published in Portrety Polskie Elzbiety Vigée-Lebrun, by Jerzy Mycielski & Stanislav Wasylewski, 1927.

1793 "Countess von Schönfeld and Her Daughter," oil on canvas, 53 1/2" x 39" (136 x 99 cm), signed and dated lower left: L. E. Vigée / Le Brun a / Vienne 1793. University of Arizona Museum of Art, Tucson. Baillio (1982), p. 106 (b&w); museum postcard. {"1 Mme de Schoenfeld, wife of the minister of Saxony, holding her child on her knee."} {"Mlle de Fries[‘] … sister the Countess Schoenfeld ..." - Chap. XI} Baillio (1982) (see description) gives her name as Ursula Margaretha Agatha Victoria. However, according to the Gothaisches Genealogisches Taschenbuch der Gräflichen Häuser, p. 747 (1901), the sitter’s name was Ursula Margareta Agnes Viktoria Ludovika. [Communication of Timothy F. Boettger.] She lived 1767-1805. She was the daughter of Count Johann von Fries (1719-1785) and Anne d’Echerny. In 1788, she married Count Johann Hilmar Adolf von Schönfeld (1743-1820). Their daughter, Friederike Dorothea Henirette, was born 1 Nov 1789; in 1813 she would marry Count Leopold von Schladen. [Communication of Jana Talkenberg--Sources: Gräfl. Taschenbuch (1910), p. 747 and Dr. Hans Volkmann, Beethoven and his relationship to Dresden (Dresden, Otto Melchert, 1942) (citing Graefl. Taschenbuch, Wurzbach, Kneschke and letters written by Griesinger to Boettiger).] VLB also painted the sitter’s siblings, Sophia Fries (the future Countess Haugwitz), and Count Moriz Fries.

1793-95 "Amphion Playing the Lyre," Private Collection, France. A study also exists, Pushkin Museum, Moscow. {"1 Prince Henry Lubomirski, playing the lyre as Amphyon with two naiads listening."} In the "Miscellaneous Paintings" section, VLB listed "1 Amphyon playing the lyre with three naïads." It is unknown whether there were two paintings or only one: perhaps VLB listed it twice by error, or the painting originally had two naiads, and VLB revised it to add Julie as a third naiad (or painted a new version with three naiads). Baillio (1982) notes that "Amphion Playing the Lyre" was exhibited at the Salon of 1817, and on page 76 notes that Julie Le Brun was a model for one of the naïads. Angela Demutskiy points out that the model for Amphion is Prince Lubomirski.

1793 "Princess Karoline of Liechtenstein as Iris," oil on canvas, 87" x 62-5/8," Signed lower left: L.E. Vigée Lebrun à Vienne 1793, possession of Fursten Liechtenstein, museum website; Baillio (2015), p. 261 (color). {"1 Princess Liechtenstein, full-length, as Iris passing through the clouds."} {"...her pretty face wore an expression of divine sweetness, and this gave me the idea of depicting her as Iris. I painted her standing, about to spring into the air. Her rainbow colored scarf [sic] wrapped itself around her body, fluttering in the breeze." - Chap. XIII} Princess Karoline Felicitas Engelberte von und zu Liechntenstein, née Countess von Manderscheid-Blankenheim (13 November 1768, Vienna – 1 March 1831 in Vienna), was the daughter of Count Johann Wilhelm von Manderscheid-Blankenheim zu Geroldseck and Countess Johanna Maximiliana Franziska von Limburg-Stirum. On 16 November 1783, she married prince Alois I of Liechtenstein (18 August 1781 – 24 March 1805). She did not have any children with the Prince, but did have two children with her long term lover Franz von Langendonck, captain of the Austrian army; one was her son Karl Ludwig (1793–dead after 1868) Viscount von Fribert. This painting (and the bust version, below), were commissioned by her husband, Prince Alois I, who also commissioned a painting of his sister, Maria Josefa Hermenegilde.

1793? "Princess Karoline of Liechtenstein, bust version," oil on canvas, oval, 25 3/4" x 21 1/8" (65.4 x 53.6 cm), private collection. Art News, 2 Jun 1934, p. 3 (misidentified as Princess Marie Elisabeth Louise of Liechtensten); Baillio (2015), p. 260 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 165 (color). [VLB doesn’t list this bust.]

1793 "Princess Maria Josefa Hermenegilde von Esterhazy of Liechtenstein, as Ariadne on Naxos," oil on canvas, 87" x 62 5/8" (221 x 159 cm), signed lower left: L.E. Vigée Lebrun à Vienne 1793, possession of Fursten Liechtenstein. Masterpieces from the Collection of the Princes of Liechtenstein, museum website; Baillio (2015), p. 262 (color). {"1 Princess d’Esterhazy, full-length, dreaming by the side of the sea, sitting on a rock."} Princess Maria Josepha Hermenegilde (13 April 1768, Vienna – 8 August 1845, Hütteldorf), married in Vienna on 15 September 1783 to Nicholas II, Prince Esterházy, a wealthy Hungarian prince who served the Austrian Empire.

{"1 Princess Louise Galitzin."} Angela Demutskiy suggests this may have been a relation of Prince Dmitry Mikhailovich Golitzyn, who died serving the Hapsburg court.

"Katherine Friefrau van Mayern," found on a website; unlocated. {"1 Mme de Mayer."} Katharina Faber, daughter of Anton Faber and Anne-Marie Bayer, was born in Vienna on 22 July 1775. In 1790, she married Freiten Von Mayern (Prague 1750- Graz 1834), and was active in Viennese society. She died in 1802. [Biography provided by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 A young girl bathing, for the Queen."}

"Countess Anna Teofila Potocka," collection of Cab. des Estamps (per Teresa Sapieha, eldest daughter of Prince Eustace Sapieha, in a May 12, 2003 letter to Kevin Kelly). {"1 Countess Severin Potocka."} Princess Anna Teofila Sapiezanka (10 September 1758, Litwa - 29 September 1813). The daughter of Prince Aleksander Michal Sapieha and Princess Magdalena Lubomirska. She was married 19 Feb 1774 to her first husband, Prince Hieronim Janusz Sanguszko. In 1786 she married her second husband, Seweryn (Severin) Potocki (1762-16 September 1829), a son of Jozef Potocki and Countess Anna Teresa Ossolinska [and a brother of the legendary Jan Potocki (8 March 1761, Pików-23 December 1815, Uładówka)]. She had three children by her second husband: (1) Julia Potocka (1788, Lubelskie - 18 September 1876), who would marry Kajetan Uruski (d. 5 April 1827) and after his death Bernard Frano Marijan Caboga (6 February 1785, Dubrovnik - 19 November 1855, Vienna); (2) Leon Potocki (1788-22 March 1860, St. Petersburg), who would marry Elżbieta Golovina (1801-October 1867); and (3) Paulina Potocka (1793-26 June 1856, Krakow), who would marry Franciszek Ksawery Łubieński (1784-1826). [Identified by Angela Demutskiy.] The sitter was also painted ca. 1780 by Marcello Bacciarelli (1731-1818).

1793 "Princess Maria von Würtemberg," oil on canvas, unlocated. {"1 Princess of Wurtemberg."} Maria Anna (15 March 1768 -21 October 1854), the daughter of Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski [whom VLB also painted this year], and Izabelaz Flemingów. In 1784 she married to Ludwig Friedrich Duke of Württemberg (1756-1817), though she divorced him in 1793. (A miniature was reproduced in Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovitch, 1905, IV, no. 149, and it’s possible that it was derived from this portrait by VLB.) [Image provided by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 A small painting for Count Wilsechk."} {"Halfway through my journey to Milan, I was detained for two days because of my French nationality, I wrote immediately requestion permission to stay in the town, and Count Wilsheck, the Austrian ambassador in Milan, obtained it for me. - Chapter X} Graf Wilczek, Austrian ambassador in Milan. [Thanks to Gerrit Walczak for the identification, and for pointing out VLB’s mention of the sitter in her Memoirs.]

{"1 Mme la Comtesse de Braonne, down to the knee."}

{"1 A small portrait for Mme de Carpeny."}

1793-94 "Yolande Gabrielle Martine, Duchess of Polignac," pastel on paper, 15 1/2" x 11" (43.2 x 28.3 cm), Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. All the Paintings of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, 1976, p. 800. [This pastel isn’t listed or mentioned by VLB; perhaps it was done in preparation for the painting mentioned below. Angela Demutskiy reports that a contemporary engraving, either of this pastel, or perhaps of the following painting (if it was prepared from this pastel) was prepared in Vienna by Fisher in 1794, and was later re-engraved by J. Smith, London.]

{"1 Madame la Duchesse de Polignac, painted from memory after her death."} She died in Vienna in 1793, shortly after learning of Marie Antoinette’s execution.

{"1 The young Edmond, a member of the Polignac family."} Edmond de Villerot (known in Russia as Karl Pavlovich alias Karlovich Villerot), illegitimate son of Diane Louise Augustine de Polignac (1742-1817), comtesse-chanoinesse and dame d’honneur of Mme Elisabeth (sister of Louis XVI), and Jean Thérèse Louis Joseph de Beaumont (1738-1831), chevalier, seigneur d’Autichamp. Edmond apparently emigrated with the Polignac family as he is cited as having entered Russian service in 1796. He served in the Azovskii Musketeer Regiment and was later a lieutenant (1798), then colonel, in the Preobrazhenskii Regiment of the Guards. He received the Order of St. Anne 3rd class in 1804. He died at Austerlitz in battle on 2 December 1805. (He is often referred to as the marquis de Villerot, although he in fact had no right to this title.) [Identification and information courtesy of Timothy F. Boettger. His source: Georges Martin, Histoire et généalogie de la maison de Polignac (Lyon: G Martin, 2002), p. 73.] [Note that there’s no evidence that VLB painted this sitter’s mother, Dianne de Polignace. She could have been referred to as Mlle de Polignac (being unmarried), or as Comtesse de Polignac or Mme de Polignac (as Louis XVI granted her the title of "Dame Comtesse" in 1777). VLB did list Mme de Polignac numerous times, but it’s believed that she was referring to Duchess de Polignac. Histoire et Genealogie de la Maison de Polignac simply mentions two portraits of Diane, one by Danloux and one by Drouais, not one by VLB. (Information courtesy of Timothy F. Boettger.)]

"Princess Pélagie Roza Potocka Sapieha," oil on canvas, 55 1/8" x  43 1/4" (140 x 110 cm). Chateau De Montrésor, France. Color image by Jan Slupski. Also published: Portrety Polskie Elzbiety Vigée-Lebrun (b&w), by Jerzy Mycielski & Stanislav Wasylewski, 1927; Kolekcjonerzy i milosnicy, by Andrzej Ryszkiewicz, Warsaw 1981, il. 53 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 263 (color). {"1 Princess Sapieha."} A miniature of this painting is attributed to Auguste Louis Jean-Baptiste Rivière (1761-1833), older brother of VLB’s sister-in-law, Suzanne Vigée. The miniature is oil on panel, oval, 7" x 6," Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, California; illustrated in The Huntington Art Collections: A Handbook, 1986; color photo by Angela Demutskiy. Rivière travelled with VLB for part of her time in exile, copying many of her portraits in miniature. [Lada Nikolenko had found a contemporary record of a portrait of Princess Sapieha, leaning against a rock by a waterfall, but that must have referred to the painting of a different sitter, Anna Potocka, whose second husband had been Prince Casimir Sapieha.] Pélagie Roza Potocka (1775-1846), the daughter of Count Stanislaw Feliks Potocki and Józefina Amalia Mniszech. She married around 1793 to Prince Franciszek Sapieha-Rozanski (1772-1829), and divorced him in 1806. She remarried the same year, to Prince Pawel Sapieha-Suffczynski (1781-1846). See above for a portrait of this sitter dancing with a shawl (incorrectly labeled by VLB as representing Countess Zamoiska), and the third portrait immediately below.

1794 "Princess Pélagie Roza Potocka Sapieha ("Maenad's Head")," 18 3/4" x 13 3/8" (47.5 x 34 cm). Portrety Polskie Elzbiety Vigée-Lebrun, by Jerzy Mycielski & Stanislav Wasylewski, 1927. Teresa Sapieha, eldest daughter of Prince Eustace Sapieha, in a May 12, 2003 letter to Kevin Kelly, reports that this painting, unlisted by VLB, was a bust of Pélagie Potocka that belonged to Muzeum Zamoyskich (Zamoyski’s Blekitny Palace in Warsaw), It was destroyed by fire in September 1939. [Image from Julia Slupska.]

1793 "Julie Le Brun, holding a scroll of music," formerly with Newhouse Galleries, New York. [Cited by Baillio (1982), p. 76.] Olivier Blanc notes this was exhibited at Biennale des Antiquaires, Paris, Grand Palais, 1984; the catalogue describes that Julie was wearing a blue dress and red sash, singing a play of Zingarelli.

1793 "Countess Maria Theresa Czernin," oil on canvas, 54" x 39," Private collection. [Not listed or mentioned by VLB.] Countess Maria Theresa Czernin, née Schönborn-Heussenstam (1758-1838). Auctioned 30-Jan-1998.

1794 "Self Portrait," oil on canvas, 25 1/2" x 20 1/2" (64.2 x 52 cm), signed and dated at lower right: L E. Vigee LeBrun / a Vienne 1794. Private collection. Parkstone Int'l, ISBN9781785250729, p. 165 (color). {Not listed or mentioned by VLB}

1793 "Woman in a Turban," oil on canvas, 33 1/4" x 29" (84.4 x 73.7 cm), signed and dated at lower right: l. Vigée Le Brun / à Vienne / 1793. National Museum, Warsaw. Haldane Macfall, Louise-Élisabeth VIGÉE-LEBRUN (2015), p. 150 (color); Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 113 (color). Jan Bialostocki and Michal Walicki, Spis portretow polskich Vigée Le Brun, suggest that the sitter was Helena Przezdziecka (1753-1821), who on 26 April 1771 married Michał Hieronim, Prince Radziwiłł, Palatin of Wilno (10 October 1744, Kraków - 28 March 1831, Warsaw). However, Danielewicz makes clear that this is not possible, as the sitter's features do not resemble those of Helena Radziwiłł, who also famously had grey hair from an early age. Furthermore, Helena Radziwiłł owned other works by VLB, including a portrait of her daughter, Aniela Radziwiłł, and she corresponded with VLB, without there being any evidence that she had sat for the artist herself. Finally, the painting had long been in the possession of the Przezdziecki family, which considered the sitter to be anonymous. Jana Talkenberg notes a strong resemblance to countess Konstancja Małgorzata Rzewuska, née Lubomirska (1761, Valley, Bavaria – 11 October 1840, Kamieniec), a daughter of Prince Stanisław Lubomirski (25 December 1722, Łańcut – 12 August 1782, Łańcut) and his wife, Princess Izabela Czartoryska. In 1782, Konstancja married Seweryn Rzewuski (13 March 1743, Podhorce – 11 December 1811, Vienna). One source states that she lived in Vienna from 1792, so VLB could have painted her there in 1793. Konstancja and her husband had three children, (1) Wacław Seweryn Rzewuski (15 December 1784, Lwów – 14 May 1831), explorer, poet, orientalist and horse expert; (2) Isabella Rzewuska, whom on 9 May 1812 married Count Ferdinand Ernst Joseph Gabriel von Waldstein und Wartenberg (24 March 1762, Vienna – 26 May 1823, Vienna); and (3) MariaRzewuska (1786-1832), who married Jaroslaw Potocki (1784-1831).

PASTELS PAINTED IN VIENNA [1792-95]

1793 "Felix Woyna in profile," pastel, 28 x 44 cm, signed and dated: E. L. V.-LeBrun 1783. Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800, by Neil Jeffares (Unicorn Press 2006). {"1 Count Woina, son of the Polish ambassador."} Felix Woyna (1787-1857).

1793 "Caroline Woyna," pastel, 28 x 44 cm, signed and dated: E. L. V.-LeBrun 1783. {"1 Mlle Caroline Woina, his sister."} Caroline Woyna (1786-1840). She married Mr. Jablownowski.

“Comtesse Metzy de Polignac,” pastel. {"1 Mlle la Comtesse Metzy de Polignac, daughter of the father of the Duc de Polignac."} Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). The father of the duc de Polignac was Louis-Melchior-Armand, vicomte de Polignac, who married twice. The vicomte had a daughter by his second wife, Elisabeth-Julie-Diane (1785-?), who married Sabakhin, chancellor of Russia. The geneaologies are generally silent as to whether the vicomte had daughters by his first wife. One mentions a Diane Louise Augustine de Polignac (1748-1817), and another source says there were two daughters by the first wife. None has been identified as a Comtesse Metzy. VLB's wording "daughter of the father" in lieu of "sister" is also very strange.

1793 "Princess Theresia Maria von Hardig," pastel, inscribed in an oval, extensively reworked by a later hand, 18" x 15 1/8" (45.9 x 38.3 cm), signed, inscribed and dated at lower right: L. LeBrun / a Vienne / 1793. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006); Christie's Sale 3786 (31 March 2016). {"1 Comtesse Thérèse de Hardik."} Princess Theresia Maria von Hartig (1785-1830).

"Auguste Jules Armand Marie de Polignac," black crayon and pastel highlights on brown paper, 14 1/8" x 10 5/8" (36 x 27 cm); Musée du Louvre, Paris. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006); Baillio (2015), p. 257 (color). {"1 The two brothers of the Duchesse de Guiche."} Auguste Jules Armand Marie de Polignac (1780-1847), son of the duc and duchesse de Polignac, who became comte de Polignac in 1817 upon his father’s death, and who was made prince in 1820 by Pope Pius VII.

"Camille Henri Melchior de Polignac," pastel, 14 1/8" x 10 5/8" (36 x 27 cm). Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). {"1 The two brothers of the Duchesse de Guiche."} Camille Henry Melchior de Polignac (1781-1855), a son of the duc and duchesse de Polignac.

1793? "Moritz Graf von Fries," pastel, 18 1/2" x 12 1/2"; a photograph of this pastel, attributed to VLB, was located in the Witt Library. {"1 Brother of Mlle de Fries, half-length."} Count Moritz Christian Reichsgraf von Fries (1777-1826), the son of Count Johann von Fries and Anne von Escherny, was a banker and court treasurer. VLB also painted his sisters, Sophia Fries (the future Countess Haugwitz), and Countess von Schönfeld.

"Comtesse Anne Charlotte Alexandrine de Thiennes de Rumbeke," {"2 The Comtesse de Rombec, half-length."} {"I also frequented the home of the Comtesse de Rombec, sister of Count Cobentzel." - Chap. XII} Comtesse Anne Charlotte Alexandrine de Thiennes de Rumbeke, née de Cobenzl (11 December 1755, Brussels – 20 December 1812, Vienna) was a daughter of comte Johann Karl Philipp de Cobenzl (21 July 1712, Laibach (now Ljubljana) – 27 January 1770, Brussels), a politician in the Habsburg Monarchy, and his wife, comtesse Maria Theresia Katharina Walburga Pálffy ab Erdöd (1719 - 1771). She was married to Charles Marie Joseph de Thiennes, comte de Rumbeke (born 1758). They lived in an Austrian part of Netherlands (château Rumbeke, now in Belgium), and other times in Vienna. At Vienna, the sitter was the first pupil and supporter of W. A. Mozart, who dedicated  several compositions to her. She was famous as a „salonnière" at her time. For comparison, here is a portrait by Johann Daniel Donat (1744-1830). [Information courtesy Jana Talkenberg.]

{"1 Comte Jules de Polignac."} Armand-Jules-Francois (1747-1817) was made duc in 1780. Thus, "Comte" was either a mistake for "Duc," or could very well refer to his eldest son, Armand-Jules-Heraclius (1771-1847). Armand-Jules-Heraclius would have been comte at this time, advancing to duc upon his father’s death in 1817.

"Maria Christiane Josepha Lichnowskaya," oil on canvas, oval, 47 1/4" x 37 3/8" (120 x 95 cm). {"1 Princess Linovska."} {"...three in particular were noted for their beauty: Princess Linoska..." - Chap. XI} Maria Christiane Josepha Thun (25 July 1765-1841) was a daughter of Imperial Chamberlain Count Franz Joseph Anton von Thun und Hohenstein (1734-1801) and Countess Maria Wilhelmine von Thun und Hohenstein, née Countess Uhlfeldt (13 June 1744, Vienna - 18 May 1800, Vienna). On 24 November 1788, the sitter married Prince Karl Alois Lichnowsky (21 June 1761, Vienna - 15 April 1814, Vienna). For comparison, here is a portrait by Joseph Grassi, ca. 1788, and also a miniature of the sitter (center) and her two sisters, by Heinrich Friedrich Füger. VLB painted other relatives of the sitter: (1) her sister, Countess Maria Elisabeth Razumovskaya (1764-1806); (2) her sister, Lady Marie Caroline Anna Gillford (1769-1800); and (3) their mother, Countess Maria Wilhelmine von Thun und Hohenstein. [Information and photos provided by Jana Talkenberg.]

"Marie-Caroline von Thun, Lady Gillford," pastel, 16 3/4" x 12 3/8" (42.5 x 31.5 cm), National Museum in Warsaw. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). {"1 Lady Guisford."} Marie Caroline Thun (1769-1800) was a daughter of Imperial Chamberlain Count Franz Joseph Anton von Thun und Hohenstein (1734-1801) and Countess Maria Wilhelmine von Thun und Hohenstein, née Countess Uhlfeldt (13 June 1744, Vienna - 18 May 1800, Vienna). The sitter married Richard Meade, Lord Gillford, 2nd Earl Clanwilliam (1766-1805). For comparison, here is a portrait by Joseph Grassi, ca. 1788, Castle Kozel, Czech Republik, and also a miniature of the sitter (right) and her two sisters, by Heinrich Friedrich Füger. VLB painted other relatives of the sitter: (1) her sister, Countess Maria Elisabeth Razumovskaya (1764-1806); (2) her sister, Princess Maria Christiane Josepha Lichnowskaya (25 July 1765-1841); and (3) their mother, Countess Maria Wilhelmine von Thun und Hohenstein. [Information and photos provided by Jana Talkenberg.] [Olivier Blanc notes that the profile of Lady Guisford is very similar to a profile said to be by VLB, of Bystra, which is in the preceding section.]

“Henriette de Choisy,” pastel. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). {"2 Mlles de Choisy."} Anne-Charlotte-Henriette de Choisy, later vicomtesse d' Agoult (22 October 1759, Mognéville (Meuse) - 1841, Goritz) was a daughter of Charles John Marquis de Choisy and Margaret of Ourches. She was a friend of the duchess d’Angoulême à Vienne and a lady-in-waiting to the Dauphine. In 1815, she married Antoine Jean, vicomte d'Agoult (Commander of the Order of St. Lazarus; Lieutenant-General and Grand Cross of the Order of St. Louis; first equerry to Madame Dauphine; governor of Saint-Clouid; peer of France December 23, 1823; Knight of the Holy Spirit May 30, 1825. He died in 1828.). Identified by Olivier Blanc.

“Charlotte de Choisy,” pastel. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). {"2 Mlles de Choisy."} Anne-Françoise-Charlotte de Choisy, called Mlle de Moignéville or comtesse Charlotte de Choisy.

{"1 Mlle Schoën."}

“Agénor,” pastel. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). {"1 Agénor, young son of the Duchesse de Polignac."}

{"1 Her brother [sic] the young count, M. de Fries."} Count Moritz Graf von Fries was a brother of Mlle de Fries and Countess Schoenfeld, who are listed in the previous Vienna section (before this section on pastels in Vienna). Perhaps this listing "her brother" was originally placed directly below those entries. However, there is an earlier pastel listing for Count von Fries in this section, and it is not known if VLB prepared a second portrait or if this is simply a duplicated listing.

"Countess Maria Wilhelmine von Thun und Hohenstein," unlocated. {"1 The Comtesse de Thoun."} {"...my first visit was to Countess Thoun." - Chap. XI} Countess Maria Wilhelmine von Thun und Hohenstein, née Countess Uhlfeldt (13 June 1744, Vienna - 18 May 1800, Vienna), a daughter of Imperial Count of the Realm Anton Corfiz Ulfeld (also spelled Uhlfeldt; 1699-1770) and his second wife, Maria Elisabeth (1726-1786), Princess von Lobkowitz. On 30 July 1761, the sitter married Imperial Chamberlain Count Franz Joseph Anton von Thun und Hohenstein (1734-1801). The sitter is remembered for her patronage of Mozart and Beethoven. The couple had six children, with four surviving to adulthood. VLB painted three of the couple's daughters: (1) Countess Maria Elisabeth Razumovskaya (1764-1806); (2) Princess Maria Christiane Josepha Lichnowskaya (1765-1841); and (3) Lady Marie Caroline Anna Gillford (1769-1800). [Information provided by Jana Talkenberg.]

“Gräfin von Harrach,” pastel. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). {"1 The Comtesse d’Harrack."} Born Maria Antonia von Falkenhayn (1738–1809).

{"1 A small drawing of the above."}

{"1 M. de Rivière."} {"...he painted very well and copied all my portraits in miniature in oil; he possessed a fine voice; he played the violin, the double bass and could accompany himself on the piano."; Footnote 3: "M. de Rivière embraced the career of diplomacy rather late in his career and died in Paris in 1833..." - Chap. XI} Auguste Louis Jean Baptiste Rivière, 1761-1833, older brother of VLBs sister-in-law, Suzanne Vigée.

{"1 M. Thomas, architect."} Angela Demutskiy suggests this was Jean-François Thomas de Thomon (1760 – 1813). In 1794 M. Thomas was working for the Esterházy's in Vienna.

1790-1800 "Unidentifed Sitter," pastel on paper, glued to cloth, 22" x 18 1/4" (55.7 x 46.5 cm), oval, Louvre, signed on the left: Mme. Le Brun. Color photo by Francis Kelly. The Louvre has erroneously identified this sitter as Moritz Graf von Fries, but that identification was doubted by Neil Jeffares in his Dictionary of Pastellists before 1800, and Jana Talkenberg is also certain that the depiction does not match paintings of von Fries by other artists. Baillio agrees that the identification is wrong. Angela Demutskiy suggests that the buildings in the background are a hint to the identity of the sitter, and that perhaps he was an architect, specifically the above listing M. Thomas, whom Angela believes was Jean-François Thomas de Thomon (1760 – 1813). Angela provides the date, based upon the sitter's clothing style and colors.

{"1 The Comtesse de Rombec."} {"I also frequented the home of the Comtesse de Rombec, sister of Count Cobentzel." - Chap. XII}

“Marquis de Rivière,” pastel; Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). {"1 The Marquis de Rivière."} {"Charles-François de Riffardeau, Marquis, then Duc de Rivière, was born on December 17, 1763 in Ferte-sur-Cher and died in Paris on April 21, 1828" - Footnote 34, Pen Portraits}. Charles-François de Riffardeau, marquis, later duc de Rivière.

{"Landscapes near Vienna, from nature."} {"The banks of the Danube are magnificent...on the left of where I sat I could see the steep mountain of Kahlenberg in the distance. Charmed by this delicious country I settled myself on the bank, and taking up my pastels proceeded to draw these beautiful trees and the area around them." - Chap. XIII}

IN ST. PETERSBURG [25 July 1795 - 1801]
(Includes a trip to Moscow, from mid-October 1800 to mid-February 1801)

1795-1801 "Elisaveta Alexandrovna Demidov, née Baroness Stroganov," unlocated. Augustin Ritt painted a miniature after this painting, in watercolor and gouache on ivory, 12x10cm, Tretiakov Gallery, Moscow. The miniature has been reproduced numerous times: Grand Duke Nicolas Michailovich, Les Portraits Russes, vol. 1, fig. 100; G.N.Komelova, Augustin Ritt - Russian miniature painter. Life and work (St.Petersbourg 2004), p.135. {"1 Mme Dimidoff, née Stroganoff."} {"I often saw M. Demidoff, the richest individual in Russia. . . . His enormous wealth was the reason he was given the hand of the young Mlle Stroganoff, a member of one of the oldest and noblest families in Russia."- Chap. XXI} Lived 1779-1818; the wife of Nicolas Demidof. The image published is Les Portraits Russes is from a miniature. [I need to check Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 110 (b&w), where Lada Nikolenko may show a different image.]

1795 "Princess Ecaterina Nikolaevna Menshikova, née Princess Galitzine," oil on canvas, 52" x 38" (132 x 95 cm), National Gallery of Armenia. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 103 (b&w); museum website; Baillio (2015), p. 25 (color). {"1 Princess Menszicoff holding her child, three-quarter length."} {"Shortly after my arrival, I was invited to pass the evening at the home of Princess Menkzisoff..." - Chap. XVI} Princess Ekaterina Nikolaevna Menshikova, née Princess Golitzyna (1764-1832) was the second daughter of Chief Marshal Prince Nikolay Mikhailovich Golitzyn (1727-1787) and Princess Ekaterina Aleksandrovna Golitzyna née Countess Golovina (1728-1769). In 1764, she married Sergei Aleksandrovich Menshikov (1746-1815), Russian Lieutenant-General, senator, later appointed privy councilor by Alexander I. She was mistress of Count Ivan Kirillovich Razumovsky (1761-1802), brother of Andrei Kirillovich Razumovsky. She is painted with her daughter, Princess Elisabeth Sergeyevich Menshikova (1791-1802).

1795 "Marianna Potocka, née Princess Lubomirska, later Countess Zubova and Mme. Uvarova," oil on canvas, 43 1/4" x 58 1/4" (110 x 148 cm). At one time listed in the Mme de Voto Collection, U.S.A.; Baillio (2015) references a private collection in Buenos Aires. Baillio (2015), p. 32 (b&w). {"1 Countess Potocka, lying full-length on a very large divan, holding a dove to her breast; this Countess is one of the prettiest women I have ever painted."} Princess Marianna Lubomirska (1773-1810), daughter of Prince Kasper Lubomirski and Barbara née Princess Lubomirska. She first married Protazy Antoini Potocki (1761-1801) (he was in fact not a count; several branches of the Potocki family used this title without having a legal right to it). They divorced and she married Count Valerian Aleksandrovich Zubov (1771-1804). Her third husband was Fedor Petrovich Uvarov (1769-1824) (also sometimes mistakently cited with the title of count). [Biographical information courtesy of Timothy F. Boettger--Source: http://genealogy.euweb.cz/poland/lubomir1.html.]

1795-97 "Countess (later Princess) Alexandra Andreevna Shuvalova, later Countess Dietrichstein," oil on canvas, 25 1/4" x 21 1/2," last located in the Lanskoronski Collection, Vienna. (Helm described the painting, "At about fifteen years old. Powdered hair tied with ribbon. Satin dress. Muff and stole of tiger skin.") {"1 The young Countess Schouvaloff, half-length."} Countess (later Princess) Aleksandra Andreevna Shuvalova (8 December 1775 10 November 1847, Vienna) was a daughter of Count Andrei Petrovich Shuvalov (Андрей Петрович Шувалов) (23 June 1743 - 24 April 1789) and Countess Ekaterina Petrovna Saltykova (Екатерина Петровна Салтыкова) (2 October 1743 - 13 October 1816, Rome). The sitter was married 10 July 1797 to Count (later Prince) Franz Josef Karl Johann Nepomuk Quirin von Dietrichstein Proskau-Leslie (28 April 1767 - 8 July 1854). The marriage proved very unhappy, though, and the marriage ended in 1804. They had one child, Joseph Franz, Prince of Dietrichstein (28 March 1798 – 10 July 1858, Friedland, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany). [Identified by Angela Demutskiy.] As VLB listed this painting in St. Petersburg, and it was before the sitter’s marriage, it would have to be dated 1795-97, when she was around 19-21, not 15 as Helm thought. VLB also listed a second painting of the sitter in St. Petersburg, below, and a third painting in London. VLB also painted a number of her relatives: (1) her sister, Princess Praskovya Andreevna Golitzyna, née Countess Shuvalova (Прасковья Андреевна Шувалова) (19 December 1767 – 11 December 1828, Paris); (2) her brother, Count Pavel Andreyevich Shuvalov (Павел Андреевич Шувалов) (21 May 1776 - 1 December 1823); (3) her cousin, Countess Varvara Nikolaevna Golovina, née Princess Golitzyna (Варвара Николаевна Головина, урожденная княжна Голицына) (1766-1819); (4) her cousin, Countess Anna Ivanova Orlov, née Countess Saltykova (1777-1824); (5) her cousin, Natalia Zakharovna Kolychёva, née Khitrovo (1774-1803); (6) her cousin, Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov  (Иван Иванович Шувалов) ( 1 November 1727, Moscow - 14 November 1797, St. Petersburg); and (7) her uncle, Field Marshal Count Ivan Petrovich Saltykov (Иван Петрович Салтыков) (28 June 1730 – 14 November 1805).

1795-97 "Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna, and Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna, Daughters of Paul I," oil on canvas, oval, 39" x 39" (99 x 99 cm), Hermitage. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, cover & p. 112 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 275 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 177 (color). {"2 The two young Grand Duchesses Helen and Alexandrine, both very pretty women. I painted them together, looking at a medallion of the Empress Catherine in their hands."} {"...the young King of Sweden … arrived in Saint Petersburg … on August 14 1796.... I remember that when he came to my home to see the portrait I had painted of his future fiancée [Alexandra], he gazed at the picture with such rapt attention that his hat fell out of his hand." - Chap. XX; Does this refer to the dual portrait, or was there an individual portrait with which we are not familiar?} [Professor Francesco Bottin of the Università di Padova has examined a copy [*] in a private collection in Rome, in which the medallion [*] features the girls’ father, Paul I, instead of their grandmother, Catherine II. Other copies exist: one was in the Hapsburg family’s Konopischt (Konopiste) castle in Bohemia till 1945, and another is in a small private manor called Petersdorf (bei Lensahn), in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.] Alexandra Pavlovna (Александра Павловна) (9 August 1783, Saint Petersburg – 16 March 1801, Vienna) and Elena Pavlovna (Елена Павловна) (24 December 1784, Saint Petersburg – 24 September 1803, Schwerin) were the daughters of Grand Duke Pavel Petrovich, later Emperor Paul I (Па́вел I Петро́вич) (1 October [O.S. 20 September] 1754, St. Petersburg – 23 March [O.S. 11 March] 1801, St. Petesburh) and Grand Duchess Maria Fyodorovna( Мари́я Фёдоровна), née Princess Sophie Marie Dorothea Auguste Louise, Duchess von Württemberg, later Empress (25 October 1759, Stettin, Prussia (now Poland) – 5 November 1828). VLB first painted them in Greek style, but Catherine’s favorite lied to VLB that the Empress had been scandalized by their dress. VLB writes that she merely revised the painting, adding sleeves, but x-rays of the Hermitage painting show no sign of overpainting. We do not know if the copy in Rome has been authenticated or studied by x-ray. In August 1796, King Gustav Adoph (1778-1837) of Sweden visited Saint Petersburg to betroth Alexandra, but the match failed because he refused to allow her to continue to worship according to the rites of the Russian Orthodox Church. Instead, in 1799 she married Archduke Joseph Anton Johann of Austria (1776-1847). Also in 1799, Elena married Friedrich Ludwig of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1778-1819). VLB painted four relations of the sisters: (1) their brother, Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich, later Emperor Alexander I (Александр Павлович) (23 December [O.S. 12 December] 1777, St. Petersburg - 1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1825, Taganrog); (2) their sister-in-law, Grand Duchess Elizaveta Alekseevna (Елизавета Алексеевна), née Princess Louise Maria Auguste von Baden, later Empress (24 January [O.S. 13 January] 1779, Karlsruhe – 16 May [O.S. 4 May] 1826, Belev, Tula Province); (3) their sister-in-law, Grand Duchess Anna Feodorovna (Анна Фёдоровна), née Princess Juliane Henriette Ulrike von Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (23 September 1781, Coburg – 15 August 1860, Elfenau, near Bern, Switzerland); and (4) their grandmother, Catherine II, Empress of Russia, née Princess Sophia Auguste Fredericka von Anhalt-Zerbst (2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729, Stettin (now Poland) – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796, Saint Petersberg).

1795 "Grand Duchess Elisaveta Alexeevna, later Empress of Russia, consort of Alexander I," oil on canvas, 103 3/8" x 78 3/4" (262.5 x 200 cm), Hermitage. Baillio (2015), p. 273 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 172 (color). {"1 The Grand Duchess Elizabeth, full-length, arranging flowers in a basket."} {"...I painted her standing, in full court regalia, arranging a basket full of flowers....dressed in a white tunic..." - Chap. XVII} {"The Sunday before [Catherine II’s] death I went … to present to her my portrait of the Grand Duchess Elisabeth." - Chap. XX} Grand Duchess Elisaveta Alexeevna (Елизавета Алексеевна), née princess Luisa Maria Augusta of Baden (24 January [O.S. 13 January] 1779, Karlsruhe – 16 May [O.S. 4 May] 1826, Belev, Tula Province) was a daughter of Prince Charles Louis von Baden (14 February 1755 – 16 December 1801) and Princess Amalie von Baden, Landgravine von Hesse-Darmstadt (20 June 1754 – 21 June 1832). On 28 September 1793, she married Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich, the future emperor Alexander I of Russia (Александр Павлович) (23 December [O.S. 12 December] 1777, St. Petersburg - 1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1825, Taganrog). VLB also painted: (1) her husband, Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich, later Alexander I (Александр Павлович) (23 December [O.S. 12 December] 1777, St. Petersburg - 1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1825, Taganrog); (2) her sister-in-law, Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna (Александра Павловна), later Archduchess of Austria (9 August 1783, St. Petersburg-16 March 1801, Vienna); (3) her sister-in-law, Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna (Елена Павловна), later Grand Duchess von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (24 December [O.S. 13 December] 1784, St. Petersburg-24 September 1803, Schwerin); (4) her sister-in-law, Grand Duchess Anna Feodorovna (Анна Фёдоровна), née Princess Juliane Henriette Ulrike von Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (23 September 1781, Coburg – 15 August 1860, Elfenau, near Bern, Switzerland); and (5) her mother-in-law, Grand Duchess Maria Feodorovna (Мари́я Фёдоровна), née Princess Sophie Marie Dorothea Auguste Louise, Duchess von Württemberg, later Empress (25 October 1759, Stettin (Prussia, now Poland) – 5 November 1828, Pavlovsk).

{"2 Two half-length copies of the same with hands showing."}

1795 "Grand Duchess Elisaveta Alexeevna, later Empress of Russia, consort of Alexander I," oil on canvas. Location unknown. {"2 Another two large half-length with one hand showing."}

1797 "Grand Duchess Elisaveta Alexeevna, later Empress of Russia, consort of Alexander I," oil on canvas. The dimensions per Baillio (2015) are 38 3/4" x 34 1/2" (98.5 x 87.5 cm), but per Baillio (2016) are: 30 3/4 x 26 3/8" (78 x 67 cm). Signed and dated lower left: L. E. Vigée Le Brun 1797. Collection of the Hesse Family. Connaissance des Arts, 214:128, Dec. 1969 (tiny color print); Baillio (2015), p. 276 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 183 (color). {"...I painted her again, this time wearing a thin violet shawl and reclining upon a cushion." - Chap. XVII} Baillio considers a copy at the Hermitage to be an autograph replica, though Angela Demutskiy believes it is an anonymous copy. [A weaker copy, 30 3/4" x 24 3/4," is in Musée Fabre, Montpellier; Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 110 (b&w), and Angela Demutskiy believes this copy to be the work of Borovikovskii.]

"Grand Duchess Elisaveta Alexeevna, later Empress of Russia, consort of Alexander I," oil on canvas. This is another variant, not seeming to fit into VLB's listing.

1798? "Grand Duchess Elisaveta Alexeevna, later Empress of Russia, consort of Alexander I," pastel. Unlocated. We believe there were two signed pastels and a third pastel that VLB took to Dresden.

1798? "Grand Duchess Elisaveta Alexeevna, later Empress of Russia, consort of Alexander I," pastel. Unlocated. We believe there were two signed pastels and a third pastel that VLB took to Dresden.

1801 "Countess Anna Ivanovna Orlov, née Saltykova," unlocated. No known reproduction. {"The wife of Marshal Soltikoff … asked me to paint portraits of her husband and her daughter, who had married Count Gregory Orloff, son of Count Vladimir."- Chap. XXIV} Countess Anna Ivanova Orlov, née Countess Saltykova (1777-5 December 1824), a daughter of Field Marshal Count Ivan Petrovich Saltykov (Иван Петрович Салтыков) (28 June 1730 – 14 November 1805) and his wife, Countess Darya Petrovna Saltykova, née Countess Chernysheva (1739-1802). She was well educated and a maid of honor to Catherine II. On 5 February 1800, she married Count Grigory Vladimirovich Orlov (1777-1826), favorite nephew of Catherine II. VLB painted a number of her relatives: (1) her father; (2) her cousin, countess Aleksandra Andreevna von Dietrichstein, née Countess Shuvalova, later Princess (8 December 1775 – 10 November 1847, Vienna); (3) her cousin, Princess Praskovya Andreevna Golitzyna, née Countess Shuvalova (Прасковья Андреевна Шувалова) (19 December 1767 – 11 December 1828, Paris); (4) her cousin, Count Pavel Andreyevich Shuvalov (Павел Андреевич Шувалов) (21 May 1776 - 1 December 1823); (5) her cousin, Countess Varvara Nikolaevna Golovina, née Princess Golitzyna (Варвара Николаевна Головина, урожденная княжна Голицына) (1766-1819); (6) her cousin, Natalia Zakharovna Kolychёva, née Khitrovo  (1774-1803); and (7) her cousin, Ivan Ivanovitch Shuvalov (Иван Иванович Шувалов) ( 1 November 1727, Moscow - 14 November 1797, St. Petersburg). [The sitter was noted for her blue eyes.]

1801 "Field Marshal Count Ivan Petrovich Saltykov," signed & dated, 35" x 26 1/4," unlocated. {"The wife of Marshal Soltikoff … asked me to paint portraits of her husband and her daughter... I had placed the portrait … in front of [a stove] to dry and I found [it] half grilled and so badly scorched that I was obliged to start it all over again"- Chap. XXIV} Count Ivan Petrovich Saltykov (Иван Петрович Салтыков) (28 June 1730 – 14 November 1805) was a son of Field Marshal Pyotr Semyonovich Saltykov (Пётр Семёнович Салтыков) (ca. 1697-1700 - 26 December 1772) and his wife, Princess Praskovia Yuriyevna Trubetskaya (1704-67). The sitter was a Russian Field Marshal, the Governor-General of Moscow from 1797 to 1804, and owner of the grand estate of Marfino. He was married to Countess Darya Petrovna Saltykova, née Countess Chernysheva (1739-1802). VLB painted a number of his relatives: (1) his daughter, Anna Ivanova Orlov, née Countess Saltykova (1777-5 December 1824); (2) his niece, Countess Aleksandra Andreevna von Dietrichstein, née Countess Shuvalova, later Princess (8 December 1775 – 10 November 1847, Vienna); (3) his niece, Princess Praskovya Andreevna Golitzyna, née Countess Shuvalova (Прасковья Андреевна Шувалова) (19 December 1767 – 11 December 1828, Paris); (4) his nephew, Count Pavel Andreyevich Shuvalov (Павел Андреевич Шувалов) (21 May 1776 - 1 December 1823); (5) his cousin, Countess Varvara Nikolaevna Golovina, née Princess Golitzyna (Варвара Николаевна Головина, урожденная княжна Голицына) (1766-1819); and (6) his cousin, Ivan Ivanovitch Shuvalov (Иван Иванович Шувалов) ( 1 November 1727, Moscow - 14 November 1797, St. Petersburg).

1795-96 "Grand Duchess Anna Feodorovna, consort of Grand Duke Constantine," oil on canvas. Pushkin Museum, Moscow. [Seized by Red Army from Herzoglisches Schlossmuseum, Gotha, Germany. At one time was believed destroyed, Baillio (1982).] Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 111 (b&w). {"2 The Grand Duchess Anne. Two half-length portraits."} {"...I completed a portrait of the Grand Duchess Anne, wife of the Grand Duke Constantin. Born Princess Coburg..." - Chap. XVII}  Grand Duchess Anna Feodorovna (Анна Фёдоровна), née Princess Juliane Henriette Ulrike von Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (23 September 1781, Coburg – 15 August 1860, Elfenau, near Bern, Switzerland) was a daughter of Franz Frederick Anton, Duke von Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (1750-1806) and Augusta Caroline Reuss, Duchess von Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, née Countess von Ebersdorf (1757-1831). The sitter married Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich, later Konstantin I (1779-1833). VLB also painted: (1) her sister-in-law, Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna (Александра Павловна), later Archduchess of Austria (9 August 1783, St. Petersburg-16 March 1801, Vienna); (2) her sister-in-law, Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna (Елена Павловна), later Grand Duchess von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (24 December [O.S. 13 December] 1784, St. Petersburg-24 September 1803, Schwerin); (3) her sister-in-law, Grand Duchess Elizaveta Alekseevna (Елизавета Алексеевна), née Princess Louise Maria Auguste von Baden, later Empress (24 January [O.S. 13 January] 1779, Karlsruhe – 16 May [O.S. 4 May] 1826, Belev, Tula Province); (4) her mother-in-law Grand Duchess Maria Feodorovna (Мари́я Фёдоровна), née Princess Sophie Marie Dorothea Auguste Louise, Duchess von Württemberg, later Empress (25 October 1759, Stettin, Prussia (now Poland) – 5 November 1828, Pavlovsk); and (5) her brother-in-law, Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich, later Emperor Alexander I (Александр Павлович) (23 December [O.S. 12 December] 1777, St. Petersburg - 1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1825, Taganrog).

1795-96 "Grand Duchess Anna Feodorovna, consort of Grand Duke Constantine," oil on canvas. Castle Novy dvur (Schönhof, Bohemia, Czech Republic). [Information provided by Jana Talkenberg.] {"2 The Grand Duchess Anne. Two half-length portraits."} {"...I completed a portrait of the Grand Duchess Anne, wife of the Grand Duke Constantin. Born Princess Coburg..." - Chap. XVII} [Another portrait, shown in Portraits Russes, vol. 5, fig. 1, was called a VLB portrait of this sitter, but this is wrong. Nikolenko reports this is by Borovikovsky, and this is also the view of Angela Demutskiy. Furthermore, a color image shows a sitter with light-colored hair.]

1796 "Countess Ecaterina Vassilievna Skavronskaya, née Engelhardt," oil on canvas, 31 1/2" x 26" (80 x 66 cm), signed and dated at left: E. Louise Vigée Le Brun /a St Petersbourg / 1796. Musée du Louvre, Paris. Beaux Arts, 6 Dec 1935; Gazette des Beaux Arts, Feb 1967, sup. 13 (b&w); Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 102 (b&w); La Revue du Louvre, 17:4-5, p. 265-72; Baillio (1982), p. 109 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 271 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 179 (color). Another copy is at Kunstmuseum, Bern. {"2 The Countess Scavronska. Two half-length. (Just like the half-length portraits I had painted in Naples)."} See the Baillio (1982) description.

1796-97 "Countess Anna Sergeevna Stroganova and Her Son," oil on canvas, 35 5/8" x 28 3/4" (90.5 x 73 cm). Hermitage, Paintings in the Hermitage by Colin Eisler; Stroganoff: The Palace and Collections of a Russian Noble Family, p. 146; Baillio (2015), p. 269 (color). {"1 Countess Stroganoff holding her child."} [VLB actually painted two Countess Stroganov’s with their children, this one is the wife of Count Grigory Alexandrovich Stroganov; VLB also had painted this couple in Vienna, when they were Baron and Baroness.] Anna Sergeevna, born Princess Troubetzkoy, lived 1765-1824; she was the sister of Countess Ecaterina Sergeevna Somoilov, another of VLB’s sitters. In 1791 she married Grigory Alexandrovich Stroganov, and bore him five sons and a daughter. Painted with her son, Sergei Grigorievich, 2nd Count Stroganov (1794-1882).

1800-01 "Countess Natalia Pavlovna Stroganov," signed and dated, (as 4-5 year old girl, head & shoulders, white frock - no reproduction known), pastel, unlocated. [Not listed or mentioned by VLB.] Lived 1796-1872, daughter of Count Pavel Alexandrovich Stroganov and his wife née Princess Sophia Vladimirovna Golitsyna. She married her cousin, Sergei Grigorievich, 2nd Count Stroganov, whom VLB also painted as a child, in a portrait with his mother (previous listing).

1798 "Countess Sofia Vladimirovna Stroganov, née Princess Galitzine," oil on canvas, Pushkin Museum, Moscow. The color image was found on a Russian website. A black and white photo had been published in Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967 (b&w), p. 108, but isn’t as attractive, so is probably a copy after VLB. [A copy had been reported in the Ivanovo Oblast Art Museum.] {"1 Countess Stroganoff holding her child."} She was the wife of Count Paul Alexandrovich Stroganov, and lived 1775-1845.

ca. 1790 "Count Paul Alexandrovich Stroganov," Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 118 (b&w). {"1 A matching half-length portrait of her husband."} Paul Alexandrovich Stroganov, (June 7, 1772, Paris - June 10, 1817), was a Russian military commander and statesman, a friend and close associate of Alexander I. A variant, oil on canvas, 11 1/4" x  13 3/4" (28.5 x 35 cm), Hermitage. Haldane Macfall, Louise-Élisabeth VIGÉE-LEBRUN (2015), p. 133. The faces between the two versions are very different, as the Hermitage face is rounder, whereas the version published in Gazette des Beaux Arts is more angular.

Young Comte Stroganov,” Musée Fondation Zoubov, Genève, museum website. Jana Talkenberg, who alerted us to this image, suggests that the sitter "might be Alexander Pavlovich (1794-1814), a son of Pavel Alexandrowich Stroganov and his wife Sofia Vladimirovna, born Trubetskaya. The alternative might be Sergei Grigorievich Stroganov (1794-1882), a son of baron Grigori Alexandrovich and his wife Anna Sergeievna, born Trubetskaya. He married later Natalia Pavlovna Stroganova. His parents had 3 other sons (Alexander, born 1795, Alexei, born 1797, and Valentin born 1801)."

1797 "Countess Ecaterina Sergeevna Somoilov, née Princess Troubetzkoy, with two of her children," oil on canvas, 90 1/4" x 70 1/8" (229 x 178 cm), signed and dated lower left: Vigee Le Brun Petersbourg 1797, Hermitage. Grand Duke Nicolas Michailovich, Les Portraits Russes; Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 102 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 283 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 191 (color). {"1 Countess Sammoicloff with her children near her."} Lived 1763-1830. The daughter of Prince Sergei Aleksandrovich Trubetskoy and Princess Elena Vasilievna Nesvitskaya, she married Count Alexander Nikolayevich Samoilov, nephew of Catherie II's husband, Prince Grigory Alexandrovich Potemkin. In 1782, the sitter became a maid of honor at Catherine's court. She is shown with her son Grigory Alexandrovich (d. 1811 during the Russian-Turkish war) and her daughter Elena Alexandrovna (1787-1843), who later married Dmitry Donets-Zakharzhevsky. VLB had twice painted her sister, Baroness (later Countess) Anna Sergeevna Stroganova.

1796 "Countess Ecaterina Vladimirovna Apraxine, née Princess Galitzine," oil on canvas, 44" x 37" (112 x 94 cm), signed and dated. Private collection. Les Portraits Russes, by Grand Duke Nicolas Michailovich, 1905, vol. 1, fig. 155; color image from Witt Library; Baillio (2015), p. 280 (color). {"1 Countess Apraxine, large half-length."} Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006), lists a pastel bust of this sitter by VLB. Olivier Blanc has provided this image (see unframed detail), which may be the pastel of this sitter. Ecaterina Vladimirovna Golitsyna (1768 - 1854) was a daughter of prince Vladimir Borissovitch Golitsyne (1731-98) and comtesse Natalia Petrovna Tchernycheva (1739-1837). In 1793, she married a cousin, lieutenant general comte Stepan Stepanovitch Apraxine (1757-1827). The couple had five children, though only three survived to adulthood: Natalie (1794-1890); Vladimir (1794-1833); and Sophia (1796-1885), the future wife of the civil Governor of Moscow, Prince Alexei Grigorievich Chtcherbatov. The sitter's beauty, temper and stern expression led to the nickname, "Enraged Venus." She was the sister-in-law of Princess Eudocia Ivanovna Galitzine, whom VLB also painted.

1797 "Princess Tatiana Vassilievna Youssoupov, née Engelhardt, Mme Potemkin in her first marriage," oil on canvas, 55 1/2" x 41" (141 x 104 cm), signed and dated on the tree trunk: L. E. Vigée / Le Brun 1797 / a St Petersbourg. Tokyo Fuji Art Museum, Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 105 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 111 (b&w); Art International, Jul/Aug 1983, p. 26; L’Oeil, 396-397:45, Jul/Aug 1988; Mayer, 1989; Baillio (2016), p. 187 (color). {"1 Princess Youssoupoff, half-length."} [Sold for $833,330 5/30/88.] Lived 1769-1841, a sister of Varvara Galitzin and Catherine Skavronsky, whom VLB also painted. She had married Lieutenant General Mikhail Sergueivitch Potemkin in 1785, bearing him two children. He died in 1791, and in 1793 she married the wealthy landowner Prince Nicholas Borisovitch Youssoupoff (1751-1831). She bore him a son, Boris, heir to his fortune. See the Baillio (1982) description

1797? "Prince Boris Nicholaevitch Youssoupov, as Cupid," oil on canvas, circular, 17 3/8" x 17 3/8" (44 x 44 cm), signed and dated: Le Brun 1797. Regional Art Museum, Chernigov, Ukraine. {"1 Her son."} Image located by Angela Demutskiy.

1797 "Countess Irina Ivanovna Vorontzov, née Izmailov," oil on canvas, 25 1/4" x 29 7/8" (64.1 x 75.9 cm), location unknown. The image is a photolithograph after the original VLB, as reproduced in Grand Duke Nicolas Michailovich, Les Portraits Russes 1905-09, vol. 4, no. 107; Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul-Aug 1967, p. 104 (b&w). {"2 Countess Worandxoff, half-length."}Lived 1768-1848, sister of Princess Eudocia Ivanovna Galitzine, whom VLB also painted. She is reading a play by Racine. A report states that the original portrait had been in Gatchina Palace Museum but was "lost" during World War II. The same museum now has an oval version, newly restored, which they consider to be after VLB (though Angela Demutskiy suggests that it could be the original).

ca. 1797 "Portrait of a Woman," oil on canvas, 32 3/8" x 27 3/4" (82.2 x 70.5 cm), Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Baillio (1982), p. 45 (b&w); museum slide; Baillio (2015), p. 287 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 195 (color). Baillio suggests that this sitter could possibly be Irina Ivanovna Vortonzov, but while the earlobes look the same as that sitter (in the previously listed painting), the mouth and eyes are different. Angela Demutskiy suggested that the sitter could be Ekaterina Artemyevna Vorontsova (1780-1836), maid of honor to Grand Duchess Anna Feodorovna, based on similarities to a painting by Levitzky [*] when Ekaterina was ten years old, but in Baillio (2016), Anna Sulimova notes that this painting doesn't match portraits of that sitter by others. Sulimova believes that a proper identification will have to wait.See the Baillio (1982) description. An autograph copy of the painting with a landscape of trees in the background was sold at Sotheby Parke Bernet, New York (Oct. 28-29, 1977), with the sitter identified as Irina Ivanovna Vortonzov in that auction.

ca. 1797-1800 "Countess Varvara Nikolaevna Golovin, née Princess Galitzine," oil on canvas, octagonal, 32 7/8" x 26 1/4" (83.5 x 66.7 cm), Barber Institute of Fine Arts, University of Birmingham, England, Baillio (1982), p. 28 (color); Art in America, Nov 1982; Apollo, 118:306, Oct 1983; The Sweetness of Life (color); Baillio (2015), p. 289 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 201 (color). {"1 Countess Golovin with one hand showing."} {"Countess Golovin was a charming woman …"- Chap. XVIII} Countess Varvara Nikolaevna Golovina, née Princess Golitzyna (Варвара Николаевна Головина, урожденная княжна Голицына) (1766-1819) was the youngest child of Lieutenant-General Count Nikolai Fedorovich Golitzyn (1728-80) and Countess Praskovya Ivanovna, nee Countess Shuvalova (1734-1827). The sitter was married in 1786 to Count Nicolai Nicolayevich Golovin (1759-1821). She was an artist, favorite niece of Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov, and maid of honor to Catherine II. This painting was possibly painted in Moscow in 1800, where VLB listed a payment from a Golovin. See the Baillio (1982) description. VLB painted a number of her relatives: (1) her uncle, Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov (Иван Иванович Шувалов) ( 1 November 1727, Moscow - 14 November 1797, St. Petersburg); (2) her cousin, Countess Aleksandra Andreevna von Dietrichstein, née Countess Shuvalova, later Princess (8 December 1775 – 10 November 1847, Vienna); (3) her cousin, Princess Praskovya Andreevna Golitzyna, née Countess Shuvalova (Прасковья Андреевна Шувалова) (19 December 1767 – 11 December 1828, Paris); (4) her cousin, Count Pavel Andreyevich Shuvalov (Павел Андреевич Шувалов) (21 May 1776 - 1 December 1823); (5) her cousin, Countess Anna Ivanova Orlov, née Countess Saltykova (1777-1824); (5) her cousin, Natalia Zakharovna Kolychёva, née Khitrovo (1774-1803); (6) her cousin, Natalia Zakharovna Kolychёva, née Khitrovo (1774-1803); and (7) her cousin, Field Marshal Count Ivan Petrovich Saltykov (Иван Петрович Салтыков) (28 June 1730 – 14 November 1805).

1796 "Countess Anna Ivanovna Tolstoy, née Princess Bariatinsky," oil on canvas, 54 1/4" x 41" (137.7 x 104 cm), signed and dated: L. E.. Vigée le Brun/ 1796 à St Petersbourg. Private collection (loaned to the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa). Baillio (2015), p. 279 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 180 (color). {"1 Countess Tolstoi, half-length, leaning on a rock near a waterfall."} {"Countess Tolstoy was an intimate friend of [Countess Golovin’s], a kind and beautiful woman … - Chap. XVIII} Anna Ivanovna Bariatinsky (December 5, 1774 - April 12, 1825) was a daughter of Prince Ivan Baryatinsky, a former ambassador of Catherine II to the court of Louis XVI, and his wife Princess Catherine Petrovna Holstein-Beck of Oldenburg. In 1787, the sitter married Count Nikolai Alexandrovich Tolstoy (1765–1816), with whom she had four children: 1) Ekaterina (15 August 1789 - 11 February 1870), who would marry Lieutenant General Prince Constantine Ksaverevichem Lubomirski (1786–1870); 2) Eudokia (1793–1797); 3) Alexander Nikolayevich Tolstoy (1793 – 1866, Nice), who would marry Princess Anna Mikhailovna Scherbatova; and 4)Emmanuel (1802–1825). The sitter was nicknamed "White queen," and her friends called her "La Longue," in reference to her height.

1797 "Princess Natalia Ivanovna Kourakin, née Golovina," oil on canvas, 33" x 27 3/4" (83.8 x 70.5 cm), signed and dated. Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Salt Lake City. Museum website; Baillio (2015), p. 78 (color). {"2 Princess Alexis Kourakin and her husband the Prince."} {"The kindly Princess Kourakin, whose acquaintance I had recently made..." - Chap. XVI} Lived 1768-1831. She was awarded the Order of Saint Catherine in 1797. The sitter was formerly misidentified by the museum as Elizabeth Vladimirovna Shuvalova, but the only Countess Shuvalova by that name was born after VLB’s death, per correspondence from Timothy F. Boettger. Angela Demutskiy correctly identified the sitter, first noting the painting’s musical theme and recalling that Nikolenko had identified Princess Natalia Kourakin as a talented musician and singer. Angela then located a 1795 painting of Princess Kourakin by Borovikovskii, which confirms Angela’s identification of this sitter. Angela has also identified the song featured in the painting as being "Se non ti moro allato," from the libretto Adriano, by Pietro Metastasio (1698-1782). Angela has not yet identified the accompanying musical notes, so it is not yet known who composed the music featured in the songbook. Angela's detective work was accepted by the museum! VLB’s student, Emilie Benoist, engraved this portrait in 1818, though the engraving is unlocated.  

1799 "Prince Alexsei Borisovich Kurakin," unlocated. [A darker photo shows a larger area of the drawing.] {"2 Princess Alexis Kourakin and her husband the Prince."} Lived 1759-1829, the younger brother of Prince Alexander Borisovich Kurakin, whom VLB also painted. Alexey was general procurator of the Senate under Paul I; minister of interior affairs under Alexander I; chancellor of Chapter of the Orders (Ordenskii Kapitul) under Nicholas I. [Photograph supplied by Timothy F. Boettger.]

1797 "Stanislaw II Augustus Poniatowski, King of Poland," oil on canvas, 40" x 34" (101.5 x 86.5 cm), signed and dated. Museum of Western and Oriental Art, Kiev, Ukraine. {"2 The King of Poland, Stanislas-Auguste Poniatowski. Two large half-length paintings, one in the costume of Henri IV, the other in a velvet coat which I have kept."} {"I … finished a portrait of … the King of Poland, dressed as Henry the IV. This was the first time I had painted that kind Prince, and I kept the painting for myself." - Chap. XXII} [VLB thus disagrees with herself about which portrait she kept; she no doubt kept the one with the velvet cloak, which is now at Musée National du Château de Versailles.] Stanisław II August, born Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski (17 January 1732, Volchin, Belarus – 12 February 1798, St. Petersburg) was a son of Count Stanisław Poniatowski, Castellan of Kraków (September 15, 1676, Chojnik, Poland – August 29, 1762, Ryki, Poland), and Princess Konstancja Czartoryska (ca. 1696 or 29 January 1700, Warsaw – 27 October 1759). The medallion is the emblem of the Freemasons.

1797 "Stanislaw II Augustus Poniatowski, King of Poland," oil on canvas, oval, 38 7/8" x 30 3/4" (98.7 x 78 cm), Musée National du Château de Versailles. Masters in Art, 1905; Antiques, Jan 1968, p. 113 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 115 (b&w); The Sweetness of Life (b&w); Baillio (2016), p. 185 (color); Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 45 (color). {"2 The King of Poland, Stanislas-Auguste Poniatowski. Two large half-length paintings, one in the costume of Henri IV, the other in a velvet coat which I have kept."} See the Baillio (1982) description.

1797 "Elżbieta 'Izabella' Maria Filipina Mniszech," oil on canvas, 19" x 17 3/8," signed at left: Petersbourg Vigée Lebrun 1797. National Gallery, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Museum website; Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 90 (color)  {"1 His great niece, playing with a little dog."} {"The niece of the King of Poland, Mme Menicheck … commissioned me to paint the portrait of her daughter, then still a very young child, and I pictured her playing with her dog."; Footnote 2: "This person later became Princess Radziwill."- Chap. XXII}. Elżbieta Mniszech (5 August 1790-13 September 1852) was the daughter of Count Michał Jerzy Wandalin Mniszech (1742–14 March 1806) and his wife, Urszula Mniszech, née Zamoyska (1750 - 1806), the niece of the king. The sitter was married on 3 February 1807 to Prince Dominik Hieronim Radziwiłł (4 August 1786-11 November 1813). The couple had a son, Alexander Dominik Radziwiłł (29 February 1808-10 October 1859). The couple divorced in 1809, and in 1814, the sitter married Filip Auguste Gabriel de Canon, marquis de Ville-sur-Illon, baron de Canon, who in 1816, received the Polish name and title of count Dembliński from Emperor Alexander I of Russia (acting as Ruler of Poland). In 1776, VLB had painted the sitter's mother, who at the time was Countess Urszula Potocka (prior to her marriage to Mniszech). [Note that a completely different portrait, claiming the same identity, oil on canvas, 50 1/4" x 38" is not the work of VLB, but rather is considered the work of Jean-Baptiste Le Prince (1734-1781).] [Per Tomasz F. de Rosset, the dog was named Kiopek, and actually belonged to the king. Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 83].

1795-1801? "Princess Praskovia Andreevna Galitzine, née Countess Shuvalova," large bust, unlocated. No description or reproductions known. {"1 Princess Michel Galitzin, large half-length."} {"...Princess Michel Galitzin … had made several trips to Paris and had married one of her daughters to a French man, M. le Comte de Caumont..." - Chap. XVIII} Countess Praskovia Andreevna Shuvalova (Прасковья Андреевна Шувалова) (19 December 1767 – 11 December 1828, Paris) was a daughter of Count Andrei Petrovich Shuvalov (Андрей Петрович Шувалов) (23 June 1743 - 24 April 1789) and Countess Ekaterina Petrovna Saltykova (Екатерина Петровна Салтыкова) (2 October 1743 - 13 October 1816, Rome). The sitter was married in 1787 to Prince Mikhail Andreyevich Golitzyn (Михаил Андреевич Голицын) (28 January 1765 - 31 August 1812). VLB painted a number of her relatives: (1) her sister, Countess (and later Princess) Alexandra Andreevna Dietrichstein, née Countess Shuvalova (8 December 1775 – 10 November 1847, Vienna); (2) her brother, Count Pavel Andreyevich Shuvalov (Павел Андреевич Шувалов) (21 May 1776 - 1 December 1823); (3) her cousin, Countess Varvara Nikolaevna Golovina, née Princess Golitzyna (Варвара Николаевна Головина, урожденная княжна Голицына) (1766-1819); (4) her cousin, Countess Anna Ivanova Orlov, née Countess Saltykova (1777-1824); (5) her cousin, Natalia Zakharovna Kolychёva, née Khitrovo (1774-1803); (6) her cousin, Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov  (Иван Иванович Шувалов) ( 1 November 1727, Moscow - 14 November 1797, St. Petersburg); (7) her uncle, Field Marshal Count Ivan Petrovich Saltykov (Иван Петрович Салтыков) (28 June 1730 – 14 November 1805); (8) her sister-in-law, Princess Anna Aleksandrovna Golitsyna, née Princess Bagration Gruzinskaya, (by her first marriage, de Litzine) (1763-1842); and (9) her brother-in-law, Count Franz Josef Karl Johann Nepomuk Quirin von Dietrichstein Proskau-Leslie, later Prince (28 April 1767 - 8 July 1854).

1797-1801 "Countess (later Princess) Alexandra Andreevna Dietrichstein, née Shouvalov," unlocated. {"2 Countess Dietricten, and her husband the Count."} Countess (later Princess) Aleksandra Andreevna Shuvalova (8 December 1775 10 November 1847, Vienna) was a daughter of Count Andrei Petrovich Shuvalov (Андрей Петрович Шувалов) (23 June 1743 - 24 April 1789) and Countess Ekaterina Petrovna Saltykova (Екатерина Петровна Салтыкова) (2 October 1743 - 13 October 1816, Rome). The sitter was married 10 July 1797 to Count (later Prince) Franz Josef Karl Johann Nepomuk Quirin von Dietrichstein Proskau-Leslie (28 April 1767 - 8 July 1854). The marriage proved very unhappy, though, and the marriage ended in 1804. They had one child, Joseph Franz, Prince of Dietrichstein (28 March 1798 – 10 July 1858, Friedland, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany). [Identified by Angela Demutskiy.] Lada Nikolenko, "Russian Portraits of Madame Vigée Le Brun," Gazette des Beaux Arts, July-August 1967, cites Baron N. Wrangell, Russian Woman in Engravings and Lithographs, 1911, that mentions under the number 179 an engraving after a portrait of Countess Shouvalov-Diedrichstein, full-length, seated on a divan, her left arm posed on its back. The name of the artist is not given, so it is not certain whether the portrait was by VLB or not. This appears to be the engraving cited by Wrangell, with a detail of the portrait prepared by Vincenzo Camuccini. VLB's first painted this sitter before her marriage, above, and painted her a third time in London.

"Unidentified sitter," oil on canvas, oval, 64 x 53.5 cm, signed and dated right of center: "L. E. Vigée Le Brun 1800. Appraised on June 29, 2005, by Dr. Stephanie Hauschild, author of Monographie über die Porträts von Louise Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun, as "a beautiful and a typical portrait from Vigée Le Brun." Dr. Hauschild dates it from the time of VLB’s stay in Russia around 1800: "a whole row of portraits of Russian aristocrats are included in the artist’s work list for this time in St. Petersburgh, and this could be one of them." She believes the sitter may be an actor and compares the painting with "the very similar portrait of the countess Golovin in the Barber Institute in Birmingham." She writes that the "style, light, organization, the rendition of the background and the coloring are completely typically for Vigée Le Brun in her paintings made in Russia." University Professor Dr. Helmut Boersch Boersch-Supan is also convinced that it can fit into the Vigée Le Brun paintings in the Russian period (letter of July 9, 2005). [Spotted on BeyArs.com website by Lucia Cardellini, for an auction by Dorotheum GmbH & Co KG, of Vienna, on October 5, 2005.] The masculine features have some believing the sitter is a man. The long hair, the ribbon in the hair, and the manner of dress convince Angela Demutskiy that the sitter is a woman. Angela thinks the sitter is the above-listed Countess Alexandra Andreevna Dietrichstein, née Shouvalov, based on similarities to other portraits. While this painting does not match the engraving of Countess Dietrichstein seated on a divan discussed by Wrangell, he did not explicitly state that engraving was prepared after a painting by VLB.

1797-1801 "Count Dietrichstein" Unlocated. {"2 Countess Dietricten, and her husband the Count."} {"At that time I was painting the portrait of Count Diedrestein ..." - Chap. XX} Count (later Prince) Franz Josef Karl Johann Nepomuk Quirin von Dietrichstein Proskau-Leslie (28 April 1767 - 8 July 1854), the son of Prince Johann Baptist Karl Dietrichstein (1728-1808) and Countess Marie Christine Thun (1738-1788). He married 10 July 1797 to Countess Aleksandra Andreevna Shuvalova. The marriage proved very unhappy, though, and the marriage ended in 1804. They had one child, Joseph Franz, Prince of Dietrichstein (28 March 1798 – 10 July 1858, Friedland, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany). [Identified by Angela Demutskiy.] VLB had painted his sister, Countess Therese Kinsky, in Vienna.

ca. 1797 "Princess Anna Alexandrovna Golitsyna, née Princess Gruzinsky. By her first marriage Mme. de Litzine," oil on canvas, 53 1/2" x 39 1/2" (135.9 x 100.3 cm), Baltimore Museum of Art; museum slide; Baillio (1982), p. 117 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 285 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 193 (color). {"1 Princess Bauris Galitzin, almost full-length, finishing at mid-calf."} Anna Alexandrovna Golitsyna (1763-1842), a daughter of the Tsarevitch of Georgia, had been widowed in 1789 from Alexander Alexandrovich Litsyn. In 1790, she married Prince Boris Andreivitch Golitsyn with whom she had eight children. See the Baillio (1982) description. A study, black and white chalk, stumping, on buff paper, the corners cut in an arched shape, watermark armorial device, 11 1/8" x 9 1/4" (28.2 x 23.4 cm), inscribed on column at left: a.E.V. Lebrun, was sold at Christie's Sale 11935 - Old Master & British Drawings (27 Jan. 2016).

1798 "Charles, the 2nd Earl of Talbot," oil on canvas, 33" x 26." Photo from Witt Library. {"1 Milord Talbot. Bust."} Lived 1777-1849.

"Countess Zofia Zamoiska, dancing with a tamborine," unlocated. {"1 Princess Sapieha just past the knee, dancing with a tambourine."} Jerzy Mycielski & Stanislav Wasylewski, Portrety Polskie Elzbiety Vigée-Lebrun (1927) recognized that VLB had erred in the Vienna listing "1 Countess Zamoiska, dancing with a shawl," as the model for that painting was actually Princess Pélagie Roza Potocka Sapieha-Rozanski. They believed that she reversed the sitters, and that the sitter for this Russian painting was: Zofia Zamoyska, née Czartoryski (15 October 1778, Warsaw - 27 February 1837, Firenze, Italy). A daughter of Adam Kazimierz Joachim Ambrose Marek Czartoryski (1 December 1734, Gdańsk, Poland - 20 March 1823, Sieniawa, Poland) and his wife Izabela Elżbieta Dorota Flemming (3 March 1746, Warsaw, Poland - 17 June 1835, Sieniawa, Poland). The sitter was married to Stanisław Kostka Franciszek Zamoyski (13 January 1775, Warsaw - 2 April 1856, Vienna). The couple had 11 children. [Others suggest that this Russian listing was correct, representing yet another portrait of Princess Sapieha.]

1797-1805 "Ecaterina Michailovna Potemkine, later Countess Ribeaupierre," unlocated, no known reproduction. {"1 The daughter of Princess Youssoupoff."} [After her return to Paris, VLB lists a portrait of "The Young Princess Potemski, three-quarter length." Perhaps both listings refer to the same painting; Nikolenko believes that the portrait was started in Russia, and finished in Paris.] For comparison, see a portrait ca. 1810 by Giovanni Battista Lampi, provided by Jana Talkenberg. Lived 1788-1829, she was the daughter of Tatiana Vassilievna Engelhardt. (Her mother, Tatiana, first married Prince Michail Potemkin and later married Prince Youssoupoff, so the reference to “the daughter of Princess Youssoupoff” and “the Young Princess Potemski” could indeed both refer to Ecaterina.)

1797 "Serene Princess Ecaterina Iljinishna Golenishcheva-Kutuzova, née Bibikov," oil on canvas, 32 1/4" x 26 3/4" (82 x 68 cm), signed and dated lower left: L. E. Vigée Le Brun / St Petersbourg 1797. Pushkin Museum, Moscow. Beaux Arts, 9:4, Nov 1931; Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 100 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 286 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 188 (color). {"1 Mme Koutousoff, half-length."} Ekaterina Ilyinichna Bibikova (5 November 1754, St. Petersburg – 23 July 1824, St. Petersburg) was a daughter of Lieutenant General Ilya Alexandrovich Bibikov and Varvara Nikitichna Shishkova. On 27 April 1778, she married the famous field-marshal, Colonel Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (16 September [O.S. 5 September] 1745, St. Petersburg – 28 April [O.S. 16 April] 1813, Bolesławiec, Poland), who served as a military leader and diplomat under rulers Catherine II, Paul I and Alexander I. In recognition of pushing the French out of Russia following Napoleon's invasion, he was awarded the title of Prince of Smolensk. Paul I awarded Ecaterina the Order of Saint Catherine on the day of his coronation in 1797, and Alexander I named her a lady-in-waiting. VLB also painted her daughter, Daria Michailovna Opotchinine, below. Parke-Bernet also sold a painting in 1962 that was considered a VLB portrait of another daughter, Countess Prascovie Michailovna Tolstoy.

1801 "Daria Mikhailovna Opochinin, née Golenischev-Kutuzov," oval, 27" x 21," signed and dated lower right: L.E. Vigée / Le Brun / a petersbourg / 1801. Private Collection. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 109 (b&w). {Not listed or mentioned by VLB} Daria Mikhailovna Golenischev-Kutuzov (22 December 1778-5 April 1854), a daughter of the famous Field-Marshal; VLB also painted her mother, Serene Princess Ekaterina Il’inichna Golenishchev-Kutuzov-Smolensky, and her sister, Countess Prascovie Michailovna Tolstoy. [Color image by Olivier Blanc.]

1801? "Countess Prascovie Michailovna Tolstoy, née Princess Golenichev-Koutouzov," oval, 27 3/4" x 23," white dress, blue ribbon, green mantle, landscape background. Sold by Parke-Bernet 4/18/1962, N.Y. {Not listed or mentioned by VLB} Prascovie Michailovna Golenichev-Kutuzov (11 January 1775-1 January 1844), a daughter of the famous Field-Marshal; VLB also painted her mother, Serene Princess Ecaterina Iljinishna Koutousov-Smolenskya, and her sister, Daria Michailovna Opotchinine.

1800 "Lady of St. Petersburg," oil on canvas, 99.5 x 80 cm, signed at right center: Vigée Lebrun 1800. [Image provided by Olivier Blanc.]

"Baron Alexander Sergeevich Stroganov," oval, unlocated. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 117 (b&w). {"1 Le Baron de Stroganoff."} Lived 1771-1815.

1795-1800 "Alexandra Grigorievna Kositzky," waist length, 26 1/4" x 21", unlocated. No description or reproduction known. {"1 Mlle Kasisky, sister of Princess Belloseki."} Lived 1772-1850, a daughter of Gregory Vasilievitch Kozitzky, Catherine II’s Secretary of State, and Catherine Ivanovna Miasnikova. Around 1798 she married Jean Charles François, Count Lava (b. 1761 in Marseilles, d. 1846.) The sitter became an important figure in St. Petersburg society. Their daughter, Catherina, married Sergei Trubetskoy, a Decembrist, and she followed him into exile in Siberia in 1826. [Information courtesy of Olga Baird and Angela Demutskiy.]

1798 "Princess Anna Grigorievna Belosselsky-Belozersky, née Kozitzky," oil on canvas, 26 3/4" x 30 3/4," signed and dated, National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, D.C. Museum postcard. [VLB doesn’t list this painting, but does list that of the Princess’ sister, listed above. Perhaps she painted both, or perhaps the sitter of this painting is actually Mlle Kasisky?] Lived 1773-1846, a daughter of Gregory Vasilievitch Kozitzky, Catherine II’s Secretary of State, and Catherine Ivanovna Miasnikova. Around 1802 she married the widower Prince Aleksandr Mikhailovich Beloselskiy- Belozerskiy (1752-1809). [Information courtesy of Angela Demutskiy.]

1794 "Princess Alexandra Petrovna Galitzine, née Protassov, with her son" oil on canvas, 54 1/4" x 46" (137 x 101 cm) signed and dated at lower right: L. E. Vigée Le Brun Vienne 1794, Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 107 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 267 (color). {"1 Princess Alexandre Galitzin."} Princess Aleksandra Petrovna Golitsyna née Protasova, later Countess (20 March 1774-16 October 1842), the daughter of a senator, lieutenant-general Pyotr Stepanovich Protasov (1730-1794) and Aleksandra Anna Ivanovna Protasova née Protasova (1750-1782). The sitter was married in 1791 to master of the horse, privy councilor Prince Alexei Andreevich Golitsyn (1767-1800). Gazette des Beaux Arts identified the child as her nephew, while Portraits Russes vol. 2, fig 24, identifies the child as her son. Elena Sharnova pointed out that the signature indicates the painting was prepared in Vienna, and not in St. Petersburg, as VLB has listed. With a 1794 date, the son would have been her eldest, Prince Pyotr Alekseevich Golitsyn (27 January 1792-1842).

1795-1801 "Natalia Zaharovna Kolychev, née Khitrovo," Antiques, Jan 1953, p. 6. {"1 Mme Kalitcheff."} [VLB only lists one portrait for this sitter, but see the next listing.] Natalia Zakharovna Kolychёva, née Khitrovo (1774-1803), was a daughter of State Counsellor Zahara Alekseevicha Khitrovo (Захар Алексеевич Хитрово) (1734? or 1746? - 30 November 1798) and Aleksandra Nikolaevna Khitrovo, née Maslov (Александра Николаевна Хитрово, урожденная Маслова) (28 March 1754 - 5 January 1829). In 1799, the sitter married Vice-Chancellor Stepan Akekseevich Kolychev (Степан Алеексеевич Колычев) (15 July 1746 - 14 May 1805). She was a maid of honor to Grand Duchess Maria Feodorovna (Мари́я Фёдоровна). VLB painted a number of her relatives: (1) her cousin, Countess Aleksandra Andreevna von Dietrichstein, née Countess Shuvalova, later Princess (8 December 1775 – 10 November 1847, Vienna); (2) her cousin, Princess Praskovya Andreevna Golitzyna, née Countess Shuvalova (Прасковья Андреевна Шувалова) (19 December 1767 – 11 December 1828, Paris); (3) her cousin, Count Pavel Andreyevich Shuvalov (Павел Андреевич Шувалов) (21 May 1776 - 1 December 1823); (4) her cousin, Countess Anna Ivanova Orlov, née Countess Saltykova (1777-1824); (5) her cousin, Countess Varvara Nikolaevna Golovina, née Princess Golitzyna (Варвара Николаевна Головина, урожденная княжна Голицына) (1766-1819); (6) her cousin, Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov (Иван Иванович Шувалов) ( 1 November 1727, Moscow - 14 November 1797, St. Petersburg); and (7) her cousin, Field Marshal Count Ivan Petrovich Saltykov (Иван Петрович Салтыков) (28 June 1730 – 14 November 1805).

1795-1801? "Natalia Zaharovna Koltchev, née Khitrovo," Private Collection, U.S.A. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 108 (b&w). {"1 Mme Kalitcheff."} [VLB only lists one portrait for Mme Kalitcheff (see previous listing), but this is clearly the same sitter in a different pose.]

1798 "Count Felix Potocki, " {"1 Count Potocki."} 68 x 57 cm, signed and dated: E. L. Vigée-Lebrun a Petersbourg 1798. Portrety Polskie Elzbiety Vigée-Lebrun, by Jerzy Mycielski & Stanislav Wasylewski, 1927. Szczesny (Felix) Potocki (1776-1810), the son of Count Stanislaw Feliks Szczesny Potocki and Józefina Amalia Mniszech. He was the brother of Pélagie Roza Potocka, later Princess Sapieha. [Information and image from Julia Slupska.]

1797 "Count Giulio (Youliy Pompeevich) Litta," oil on canvas, 37" x 28 3/4" (94 x 73 cm), signed. Civica Galleria d'Arte Modena, Milan. Baillio (2015), p. 270 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 178 (color). {"1 Count Litta."} Lived 1763-1839. Born in Italy, his father was a general in the Austrian Army and his mother came from an old Italian noble family called Visconti. He became a knight of the Maltese Order at the age of 17, and was sent to Russia in 1789. For his service in the war against Sweden he was awarded the rank of a counter-admiral and appointed to the order of St. George. He became a Russian citizen in 1798 and served in the government. He was the second husband of another VLB sitter, Ekaterina Skavronskaia née Engelhardt. [Information from Jana Talkenberg.] VLB first painted him in Naples in 1790.

{"1 Princess Viaminski."}

1800 "Prince Ivan Ivanovich Bariatinsky," oil on canvas, 30 1/2" x 26 3/4" (77.5 x 68 cm), signed and dated lower right: L. E. Vigee Le Brun a Petersbourg. 1800. Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 116 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 292 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 206 (color). {"1 The young Prince Bariatinski. Large half-length."} {"...I was painting the portrait of the young Prince Bariatinski, and as I had begged him not to wear powder, he had agreed not to do so."-Chap. XXI} Born in 1772 (others say 1767), a son of Prince Ivan Sergeevich Bariatinsky ("le beau Russe," Ambassador to the Court of Louis XVI) and his wife, Princess Ekaterina Petrovna Golshtein-Bek. The sitter was a Russian minister in Munich. His first wife was Frances Dutton, daughter of the first Baron Sherborne; she died in childbirth in 1807. In 1813, he remarried, to Countess Maria Feodorovna von Keller (1792-1858), daughter of the Prussian ambassador in Vienna. VLB painted him again in London, listed below. He died in 1825. [The exhibition catalogue Recollection of Italy, Testimony, by Grigorij Goldovskij, 2003, Marble Palace, St. Petersburg, reports a variant is with Bariatinsky descendants in the Chigi collection at Castellfusano, in Rome, but Anna Sulimova in Baillio (2016) considers this is probably an anonymous copy. Another copy is in a private collection in New York.]

1797 "Prince Alexander Borissovich Kourakin," oil on canvas, 37 3/4" x 30" (96 x 76 cm). Hermitage. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 115 (b&w); color image from museum website. {"1 Prince Alexander Kourakin, two half-length."} Nikolenko says that VLB painted him twice, and a second image was located in the Witt Library. Lived 1752-1818, Vice Chancellor of Paul I; Ambassador of the Court of Vienna under Alexander I.

1800 "Self portrait," oil on canvas, 30 7/8" x 26 3/4" (78.5 x 68 cm), signed and dated lower left: Vigee Le Brun a Petersbourg 1800. Hermitage. Paintings in the Hermitage by Colin Eisler; Stroganoff: The Palace and Collections of a Russian Noble Family, p. 144; Baillio (2015), p. 90 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 205 (color). {"1 Self-portrait down to the knee, in black, holding my palette, painted for the Saint Petersburg Academy."} {"I began my self portrait for the Academy of Saint Petersburg at once and I drew myself painting, palette in hand." - Chap. XXIII} VLB is shown painting Maria Fyodorovna, wife of Paul I, wearing the diamond-studded imperial crown.

ca. 1795 "Julie Le Brun Playing a Guitar," oil on canvas, 32 5/8" x 39 1/2," one version in Fondation Tatiana Zuboff, Geneva; another version had been at the Kimbell Art Museum, Ft. Worth, Texas. The Sweetness of Life (b&w). {"...I liked to drape my models with large scarves, interlacing them around the body and through the arms... Examples of this can be seen in several of the portraits I painted whilst in Russia; in particular, one of my daughter playing the guitar." - Letter IV} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited at the Salon of 1798.]

1796 "Catherine II, Empress of Russia," pastel, bust-length, unlocated; Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). {"The Sunday before her death … the Empress [said] … ‘I shall give you my first sitting this evening at eight o’clock.’ The following Thursday … she expired." - Chap. XX} The pastel of Catherine II was seen in VLB’s apartment around 1830 by Mme Virginie Ancelot, and it was inventoried upon VLB’s death. A lithograph was prepared by Delaunois, and an etching by Grevedon. [Image provided by Jana Talkenberg.] Catherine II, Empress of Russia, née Princess Sophia Auguste Fredericka von Anhalt-Zerbst (2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729, Stettin (now Poland) – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796, Saint Petersberg), the eldest daughter of Prince Christian August Anhalt-Zerbst (29 November 1690, Dornburg – 16 March 1747, Zerbst) and Princess Johanna Elisabeth von Holstein-Gottorp (24 October 1712, Gottorp – 30 May 1760, Paris). On 21 August 1745 in St. Petersburg, she married Karl Peter Ulrich, later Peter III Fyodorovich (Пётр III Фëдорович) (21 February 1728, Kiel – 17 July [O.S. 6 July] 1762, Ropsha). VLB painted a number of her relatives: (1) her granddaughter, Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna (9 August 1783, Saint Petersburg – 16 March 1801, Vienna); (2) her granddaughter, Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna  (24 December 1784, Saint Petersburg – 24 September 1803, Schwerin); (3) her grandson, Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich, later Emperor Alexander I (Александр Павлович) (23 December [O.S. 12 December] 1777, St. Petersburg - 1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1825, Taganrog); (4) her granddaughter-in-law, Grand Duchess Elizaveta Alekseevna née Princess Louise Maria Auguste von Baden, later Empress (24 January [O.S. 13 January] 1779, Karlsruhe – 16 May [O.S. 4 May] 1826, Belev, Tula Province); and (5) her daughter-in-law, Grand Duchess Maria Feodorovna (Мари́я Фёдоровна), née Princess Sophie Marie Dorothea Auguste Louise, Duchess von Württemberg, later Empress (25 October 1759, Stettin (Prussia, now Poland) – 5 November 1828, Pavlovsk).

1796-97 "Princess Ecaterina Feodorovna Dolgorouky, née Princess Bariatinsky," oil on canvas, 54 1/2" x 39 1/2," signed lower left: Vigée Le Brun a petersbourg. Yamazaki Mazak Museum of Art, Japan. Grand Duke Nicolas Michailovich, Les Portraits Russes; Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 106 (b&w); Connoisseur, 168:36, May 1968; Apollo, 101:426, Jun 1975 (b&w); Baillio (1982), p. 119 (b&w). {"I was struck speechless by the beauty of Princess Dolgorouky" - Chap. XVI; "...as she had seen my Sybil and was most enthusiastic, she asked me to paint her in the same style..." - Chap. XVIII} Lived 1769-1849, the daughter of Prince Theodore Sergueivitch Bariatinsky (one of the assassins of Peter III, and Grand-Marshal of the Russian court under Catherine II) and Princess Maria Vassilievna Khovansky. In 1786, she married Lieutenant-General Prince Basil Vassilievitch Dolgorouky (1752-1812), by whom she had five children. [Biographical information published by Baillio.] See the Baillio (1982) description.

1800 "Varvara Nikolaevna Ladomirsky, later Narychkin," oil on canvas, 25" x 21 3/4" (63.5 x 55.2 cm), signed & dated lower left: L. E. Vigée / Le Brun / 1800 / a Moscou. Columbus Museum of Art, Ohio. Art News, 45:sec 2, p 449, Dec 1946; L’Oeil, 102:45, Jun 1963; Connoisseur, 154:67, Sep 1963; Baillio (1982), p. 122 (b&w); Women Artists; The Sweetness of Life (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 291 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 209 (color). {"Countess Stroganoff, wife of my old and dear friend … called her daughter, a very pretty young woman, and asked me to paint her in exchange for rent..."- Chap. XXIV} Lived 1785-1840. Her parents were Ecaterina Petrovna Stroganoff, née Princess Troubetskoy (1744-1815) [the estranged wife of Count A.S. Stroganoff; VLB painted him ca. 1768-72)] and her lover, Ivan Nikolaevich Rimsky-Korsakoff. The four children of this union were granted the name of an extinct noble Polish family, Ladomirsky. See the Baillio (1982) description. [While Baillio (1982) and Baillio (2016) give her the patronymic Ivanovna, she apparently used Nikolaevna, and her brother used Nikolaevich. Her cemetery inscription also uses the Nikolaevna patronymic, per Peterburgskii Nekropol’ 3:211.]

{"The island [of Zelaguin] offered such picturesque views that I drew a great many of them..." - Chap. XIX}

1800 "Posthumous Portrait of Queen Marie Antoinette," oil on panel, 12 1/2" x 10 1/4" (31.8 x 26.1 cm), signed & dated lower right: L. E. Vigée Le Brun, inscribed on the rear: 8eme Juillet 1800-. L’Oeil, 412:30, Nov 1989; Christie's Sale 11932-Revolution (13 April 2016). {"I set about painting a portrait of the Queen [Marie Antoinette] from memory and begged [the Comte de Cossé] to give it to [the Queen’s daughter,] Mme the Duchesse d’Angoulême ..." - Chap. XIX}

1800 "Empress Maria Feodorovna, consort of Paul I," oil on canvas, 114" x 82", Hermitage. {"I painted a full length portrait of her wearing her court costume and a diamond coronet... I placed the Empress in front of a large crimson velvet curtain..."- Chap. XXII} {"... I hurried to finish the full length portrait of the Empress Maria, as well as several smaller paintings of her, and I left for Moscow on 15 October 1800."- Chap. XXIII} Maria Feodorovna (Мари́я Фёдоровна), née Princess Sophie Marie Dorothea Auguste Louise, Duchess von Württemberg, later Empress (25 October 1759, Stettin (Prussia, now Poland) – 5 November 1828, Pavlovsk). Her parents were Friedrich Eugen, Duke of Württemberg (21 January 1732, Stuttgart – 23 December 1797, Hohenheim) and Friederike Sophia Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt (18 December 1736, Schwedt – 9 March 1798, Stuttgart). On 7 October 1776, she married Paul I ( Па́вел I Петро́вич) (1 October [O.S. 20 September] 1754, St. Petersburg – 23 March [O.S. 11 March] 1801, St. Petersburg). The sitter wears the insignia of the orders of St Andrew and St Catherine and a diamond crown." A preparatory oil sketch, oil on canvas, 13 x 9 1/2" (33 x 24 cm), published in Baillio (2015), p. 24 (color) and Baillio (2016), p. 17 (color), has different props than the final version, including a marble bust of the sitter's husband. VLB painted many of her relatives: (1) her mother-in-law, Catherine II, Empress of Russia, née Princess Sophia Auguste Fredericka von Anhalt-Zerbst (2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729, Stettin (now Poland) – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796, Saint Petersburg); (2) her son, Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich, later Emperor Alexander I (Александр Павлович) (23 December [O.S. 12 December] 1777, St. Petersburg - 1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1825, Taganrog); (3) her daughter, Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna (9 August 1783, Saint Petersburg – 16 March 1801, Vienna); (4) her daughter, Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna  (24 December 1784, Saint Petersburg – 24 September 1803, Schwerin); (5) her daughter-in-law, Duchess Elizaveta Alekseevna née Princess Louise Maria Auguste von Baden, later Empress (24 January [O.S. 13 January] 1779, Karlsruhe – 16 May [O.S. 4 May] 1826, Belev, Tula Province; and (6) her daughter-in-law, Grand Duchess Anna Feodorovna (Анна Фёдоровна), née Princess Juliane Henriette Ulrike von Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld ( 23 September 1781, Coburg – 15 August 1860, Elfenau, near Bern, Switzerland).

1801 "Jeanne du Crest de Villeneuve, née Brizé," unlocated. {"...the good and charming Mme Ducrest de Villeneuve, whom I was very pleased to meet once more in Moscow … was so pretty that I could not wait to paint her." - Chap. XXIV.} Jeanne Brizé (1775, Janzé - 4 March 1836, Rennes), was married to Pierre François Urbain du Crest de Villeneuve (2 November 1771, Le Theil-de-Bretagne - 9 February 1828, Rennes), who had a military career before entering into civil administration. (Pierre's younger brother was the famous admiral, Alexandre Louis du Crest de Villeneuve (7 March 1777, Le Theil-de-Bretagne - 22 March 1852, Paris)). The couple had two children: (1) Emile-René du Crest de Villeneuve (1795-1867, Rennes), an author whose married Ovide Euphémie Jeanne Marie Taschet de Barneval; (2) Adéle Caroline du Crest de Villeneuve (1799-?), who married Sebastien Claude Pierre Hunaut (1793-?). The sitter's son and his wife had a son, Emile-Alexandre-Louis du Crest de Villeneuve (22 November 1838, Rennes - 1902), a soldier, civil service employee, and author, married in 1868 to Armande Maufras du Chalellier, who lived in the mansion Porsmoro (today a retirement home) in Pont-L'abbé-Lambjur. [Sources: René Pocard du Cosquer de Kerviler & Louis Marie Chauffier, Répertoire général de bio-bibliographie bretonne (vols. 6 and 11); Henri Jouve, Dictionnaire biographique d'Ille et Villaine; http://gw.geneanet.org/jpk2?lang=fr&m=N&v=DUCREST%20DE%20VILLENEUVE .]

1801 “Alexander I,” pastel, Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). {"...the Emperor [Alexander] … commissioned me to paint two portraits of himself, one half length and one full length on horseback... Feeling that I was not well enough to begin the full length portrait, I began on the pastels of the Emperor and Empress; later I thought I might use these paintings to produce larger portraits in Dresden or in Berlin..." - Chap. XXV; "I made several large bust portraits of Alexander in Dresden from these pastels..." - Footnote 2, Chap. XXV; In Berlin: "...I would not allow [the German customs’ officials] to unroll my Sibyl, nor the studies I had made of the Emperor and the Empress of Russia" - Chap. XXVI} [In the Dresden section, VLB lists portraits of the Emperor (but not the Empress), prepared from these studies. We have a pair of oil paintings of the Emperor and Empress, which I am assigning to Dresden; we don’t have any images of the pastels. Angela has notes from a book on Catherine the Great that VLB painted Alexander and Elisaveta as Cupid and Psyche, but it’s hard to believe that she wouldn’t have mentioned that in her list.] Grand Duke Alexander Pavlovich, later Emperor Alexander I (Александр Павлович) (23 December [O.S. 12 December] 1777, St. Petersburg - 1 December [O.S. 19 November] 1825, Taganrog). He was a son of Paul I ( Па́вел I Петро́вич) (1 October [O.S. 20 September] 1754, St. Petersburg – 23 March [O.S. 11 March] 1801, St. Petersburg) and Maria Feodorovna (Мари́я Фёдоровна), née Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg (25 October 1759, Stettin – 5 November 1828, St. Petersburg). VLB painted a number of his relatives: (1) his grandmother, Catherine II, Empress of Russia, née Princess Sophia Auguste Fredericka von Anhalt-Zerbst (2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729, Stettin (now Poland) – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796, Saint Petersburg); (2) his sister, Grand Duchess Alexandra Pavlovna (9 August 1783, Saint Petersburg – 16 March 1801, Vienna); (3) his sister, Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna  (24 December 1784, Saint Petersburg – 24 September 1803, Schwerin); and (4) his sister-in-law, Grand Duchess Anna Feodorovna (Анна Фёдоровна), née Princess Juliane Henriette Ulrike von Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld ( 23 September 1781, Coburg – 15 August 1860, Elfenau, near Bern, Switzerland).

1795-1801 "Vera Petrovna Vassiltchikov, née Protassov," unlocated. Les Portraits Russes, by Grand Duke Nicolas Michailovich, 1905, vol. 3, fig. 204. {Not listed or mentioned by VLB} Lived 1780-1814.

ca. 1799 "Julie Le Brun as Flora,"oil on canvas, 51" x 38 1/2" (130.5 x 98 cm), Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg, Florida. Baillio (1982), p. 120 (b&w); Apollo, 117:516, Jun 1983 (b&w); museum postcard; Baillio (2016), p. 202 (color). {Not listed or mentioned by VLB} See the Baillio (1982) description.

1799 "Princess Evdokia Ivanovna Golitsyna, née Izmailov (as Flora),"  oil on canvas, 54 1/8" x 39 1/8" (137.5 x 99.4 cm), signed and dated. Utah Museum of Fine Arts. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 111 (b&w); museum website (color); Baillio (2016), p. 203 (color). {Not listed or mentioned by VLB.} Lived 1780-1850. The sister of Countess Irina Ivanovna Vorontzov, whom VLB also painted.

ca. 1797-1800 "Ivan Ivanovitch Shuvalov," oil on canvas, oval, 33 x 24" (83.8 x 61 cm), North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh. Antiques, Jan 1968, p. 109 (b&w); Connoisseur, 169:201, Nov 1968; Baillio (1982), p. 27 (color); Gazette des Beaux Arts, 6:101:supp 37, Mar 1983 (b&w); museum slide; Baillio (2016), p. 196 (color). Ivan Ivanovitch Shuvalov (Иван Иванович Шувалов) ( 1 November 1727, Moscow - 14 November 1797, St. Petersburg) was a son of Ivan "Menshoi" Maksimovich Shuvalov (d. 1741, Moscow) and Tatiana Rodionovna-Khitrovo (d. 6 April 1756, Moscow). He was not a count, though his cousins Pyotr Ivanovich Shuvalov and Aleksandr Ivanovich Shuvalov were; they assisted Elisabeth I of Russia's ascent to the throne, and introduced Ivan to her. She became his last favorite, and as Minister of Education, founded Moscow University and the Russian Academy of Art. The only portrait of Ivan Chouvaloff that VLB cites was one for 1775, which was unlocated until recently. Everyone seemed to accept the 1775 date for this portrait, until Baillio cleverly noted that the sitter wears insignia he was granted in 1782! Baillio dates this portrait to the late 1790s, and considers it to have been prepared posthumously. See the Baillio (1982) description.

1795-1801? "Princess Praskovia Yourievna Gagarine, née Princess Troubezkoy," 26 1/4" x 23," unlocated. Grand Duke Nicolas Michailovich, Les Portraits Russes; Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 101 (b&w). {Not listed or mentioned by VLB} Lived 1762-1848, the daughter of Princess Daria Troubetzkoy (whose miniature drawing Nikolenko attributed to VLB.)

1801 "Prince Nikolai Sergeyevich Gagarine," unlocated. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 117 (b&w). [Not listed or mentioned by VLB. ] Prince Nikolai Sergeyevich Gagarin (1784-1842), the eldest son of Prince Sergei Sergeyevich Gagarin (1745-98) and Princess Varvara Nikolaevna Gagarina, née Princess Galitzyna (1762-1802). Born in London and later made a gentleman of the bedchamber in 1802. In 1816, he married Countess Maria Alekseevna Bobrinkaya (1798-1835), granddaughter of Catherine II and Prince Gregory Orlov. The sitter was murdered by his forest warden from the Rejnmana estate. [Angela Demutskiy notes that the sitter was traditionally identified as the sitter's younger brother, Prince Sergei Sergeyevich Gagarin (1795-1852), Director of the Imperial Theatres. However, he would have only been 6 at the time of this portrait, whereas Nikolai would have been 17.]

1797 "Count Fedor Gavrilovich Golovkine," Signed and dated St. Petersburg, 1797. Belonged to Kiev University in 1905. [Not listed or mentioned by VLB.] Died 1823.

1795-1801? "Count Pavel Andreyevich Shuvalov," unlocated. [Not listed or mentioned by VLB.] Count Pavel Andreyevich Shuvalov (Павел Андреевич Шувалов) (21 May 1776 - 1 December 1823) was a son of Count Andrei Petrovich Shuvalov (Андрей Петрович Шувалов) (23 June 1743 - 24 April 1789) and Countess Ekaterina Petrovna Saltykova (Екатерина Петровна Салтыкова) (2 October 1743 - 13 October 1816, Rome). The sitter was a general and a hero of the war against Napoleon. In 1812, he married Princess Varvara Petrovna Shakhovskaya (Варвара Петровна Шаховская) (1 February 1796 - 23 December 1870), but the marriage ended in divorce. VLB painted a number of his relatives: (1) his sister, Countess (and later Princess) Alexandra Andreevna Dietrichstein, née Countess Shuvalova (8 December 1775 – 10 November 1847, Vienna); (2) his sister, Countess Praskovia Andreevna Shuvalova (Прасковья Андреевна Шувалова) (19 December 1767 – 11 December 1828, Paris); (3) his cousin, Countess Varvara Nikolaevna Golovina, née Princess Golitzyna (Варвара Николаевна Головина, урожденная княжна Голицына) (1766-1819); (4) his cousin, Countess Anna Ivanova Orlov, née Countess Saltykova (1777-1824); (5) his cousin, Natalia Zakharovna Kolychёva, née Khitrovo (1774-1803); (6) his cousin, Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov  (Иван Иванович Шувалов) ( 1 November 1727, Moscow - 14 November 1797, St. Petersburg); (7) his uncle, Field Marshal Count Ivan Petrovich Saltykov (Иван Петрович Салтыков) (28 June 1730 – 14 November 1805); and (8) his brother-in-law, Count Franz Josef Karl Johann Nepomuk Quirin von Dietrichstein Proskau-Leslie, later Prince (28 April 1767 - 8 July 1854). Image located by Angela Demutskiy.

"Alexander Lvovich Narishkine," 28 1/4" x 21," unlocated. Copy was made by Remezov. [Not listed or mentioned by VLB.] Lived 1760-1826.

"Lev Alexandrovitch Narishkine," oil on canvas, 22 3/4" x 21," bust-length. [Not listed or mentioned by VLB.] Lived 1785-1846?

"Alexandra Alexandrovna Bibikov," (green turban, dark blue dress, red cloak), 43" x 32 1/4," Private Collection. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 113 (b&w). [Not listed or mentioned by VLB.] Timothy F. Boettger believes that this attribution by Nikolenko is problematic, for neither of the two ladies by this name would be the right age to match the sitter as shown.]

"Alexander Alexandrovich Bibikov," unlocated. Number 233 at Taurida Palace Exhibition; Baron Wrangell expressed doubt that the sitter was Bibikov. [Not listed or mentioned by VLB. .] Lived 1765-1829; General, Ambassador, and later Senator.

1795-1801 "Princess Daria Alexandrovna Troubetzkoy, née Countess Roumiantzeff," miniature dwg, oval, Smithsonian Institute, Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 99 (b&w). [Not listed or mentioned by VLB.] [Baillio feels that Nikolenko made several errors in attribution. This might be one such case.] Lived ca. 1732-1809.

1797 "Charlotte Ritt," Museo Nacional de Colombia. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Nov 1980, p. 165 (b&w). The wife of the Russian artist, Augustin Ritt (1765-99). [Not listed or mentioned by VLB.] [Attribution by Joseph Baillio.] Color image located by Angela Demutskiy.

1797-98 "Charlotte Ritt," Private Collection, Paris.

1798 "Princess Maria Golyzin," oil on canvas, 43 3/4" x 36" (111.2 x 91.4 cm), signed and dated (barely visible, lower right): L.E. Vigée / Le Brun / a petersbourg / 1798Illustrated London News, 14 Apr 1956, p. 307 (b&w) (where the sitter is identified as "Countess Rasowmoffska"); Christie's Sale 11932-Revolution (13 April 2016). Owned by the Rasowmovsky Collection, and long believed to be Countess Rasowmovska (Maria Elisabeth Thun, who married Count André Kyrillowitsch Razumovsky), who is listed as having been painted in Vienna. In Gazette des Beaux Arts, Nov 1980, p. 164 (b&w), Baillio pointed out that VLB’s portrait of that Countess Rasowmovska is known by an engraving by Franz Durmer, and he also discovered the almost invisible inscription that this painting was done in St. Petersburg, and not in Vienna. Baillio at the time believed that the sitter was Charlotte Ritt, based on the similarities to other paintings and drawings of that sitter. However, he later withdrew that identification, based upon a difference in the eye colors between the two paintings. The sitter is now considered to be a second Countess Rasowmovska, who was a sister-in-law of Maria Elisabeth Thun. According to Maria Razumovska’s book, Die Razumovskys. Eine Familie am Zarenhof [The Razumvoskys: A Family at the Imperial Court] (1988 Böhlau Publishing House, Köln), the sitter is Princess Maria Grigorievna Golitsyna, née Princess Viazemskaia (1772-1865), whose second husband was Count Lev Kirillovich Razumovskii (1757-1818).

1801? "Sketchbook with 38 Portrait Drawings of Women and Children of the Russian Court," graphite and red chalk on paper, page size 7" x 4 3/8" (17.8 x 11.1 cm), National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, D.C. The sketches were likely made at St. Petersburg social gatherings. Baillio now believes these may be the work of VLB’s brother-in-law, Auguste Louis Jean Baptiste Rivière. This sketchbook had been lot 378 of the November 4-5, 1937 Paris estate sale of Louis Deglatigny, Rouen.
#1 - "Madame Chevalier" - Jenny Poirot was born in Lyon in 1767. In 1798 she moved to Hambourg with her husband, and she became the first singer at the Theater of Saint-Péterbourg. She soon became the mistress of Kutaïzoff, a favorite of Paul I. After Paul’s murder she moved to Berlin, where she sang in the opera. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]
#2 - "Madame Weller"
#3 - "Madame Ritt" - Charlotte Ritt
#4 - "Mlle. Michel"
#5 - "Mlle. Ghesler"
#6 - "Les deux soeurs Bakoumin," (The two Bakoumin sisters)
#7 - "La Princesse Nathalia Kourakin," Artists' Sketchbooks and Illustrated Diaries: Exploring the In/Visible (Nat’l Museum of Women in the Arts, 2007). Princess Natalia Ivanovna Kourakin.
#8 - "Madame Giuliani," Vigée Lebrun (2015), Parkstone Int'l, ISBN 9781785250729, p. 183 (color). Lucia Cardellini suggests this may have been Cecilia Giuliana, née Bianchi, who had been active in London (1788), Milan (1790), and Vienna (1791-96).
#9 - "Mlle. une telle," (A young woman)
#10 - "Mlle. une telle," (A young woman)
#11 - "Mlle. Elisabeth Mouronzoff"- should perhaps be Worontzoff?
#12 - "Mlle. Anne de Visevalotsky"
#13 - "Maria Alexievna Komekoff"
#14 - "Madame Bachiloff, neé Wolff"
#15 - "Madame Obeskoff"
#16 - "Madame Osten," Artists' Sketchbooks and Illustrated Diaries: Exploring the In/Visible (Nat’l Museum of Women in the Arts, 2007).
#17 - "Monsieur de Solticoff"
#18 - "La Princesse Barbe Gallitzin," Artists' Sketchbooks and Illustrated Diaries: Exploring the In/Visible (Nat’l Museum of Women in the Arts, 2007). Varvara "Barbe" Vasilievna Golitsyna, née von Engelhardt (1757-1815), married in 1779 to General Prince Sergey Fedorovich Golitsyn (1749-1810). Pictured with one of her sons, either Prince Vladimir Sergeyevich Golitsyn (1794-1861) or Prince Basil Sergeyevich Golitsyn (1792-1856). [Identified by Angela Demutskiy.]
#19 - "Madame Ronafidina"
#20 - "Madame Mausonoff"
#21 - "Madame Balk"
#22 - "Princess Catherine Chikovsky"
#23 - "Alexandrine Kourakin"
#24 - "Helene Kourakin"
#25 - "Mlle. Noisville, à present Madame Prescot"
#26 - "Madame Flitroff"
#27 - "Mlle. Nathalie Pouchkin"
#28 - "Nathalie Cherbatoff"
#29 - "Anne Cherbatoff"
#30 - "Mlle. Chenotieff"
#31 - "Princesse Navansky"
#32 - "Mlle. Sachinga de Mietlieff"
#33 - "La Signora Vicenza Benelli"
#34 - "Madame Hertz"
#35 - "Madame Flek"
#36 - "Mlle. Caroline Tischbein," Caroline Tischbein (1783-1843), was a daughter of the German painter, Johann Friedrich August Tischbein (9 March 1750, Maastricht - 21 June 1812, Heidelberg) and his wife, Sophie Müller (1762-1840). On 28 August 1806, she married in Heidelberg to Friedrich Wilken (1783-1843), an illustrator in Heidelberg and Berlin. The sitter was likely sketched while visiting her uncle, Ludwig Philipp Tischbein (1744 – 1806), who lived and worked at the court of Catherine II. [Information from Angela Demutskiy and Jana Talkenberg.]
#37 - "Mlle. Elisabeth Tischbein," Artists' Sketchbooks and Illustrated Diaries: Exploring the In/Visible (Nat’l Museum of Women in the Arts, 2007). Elisabeth "Betty" Tischbein (1787-1867), was a daughter of the German painter, Johann Friedrich August Tischbein (9 March 1750, Maastricht - 21 June 1812, Heidelberg) and his wife, Sophie Müller (1762-1840). She married Wilhelm Kunze, a director of the Leipzig Fire Insurance Company. The sitter was likely sketched while visiting her uncle, Ludwig Philipp Tischbein (1744 – 1806), who lived and worked at the court of Catherine II. [Information from Angela Demutskiy and Jana Talkenberg.]
#38 - "Femme voilee tenant en main une jatte""

1795-1801 "Sketchbook of 36 drawings," 7 1/2" x 4 3/4," graphite with touches of red chalk, Private collection. Baillio See the Baillio (1982) description. The sketches were likely made at St. Petersburg social gatherings. Baillio now believes these may be the work of VLB’s brother-in-law, Auguste Louis Jean Baptiste Rivière. This sketchbook had been lot 379 of the November 4-5, 1937 Paris estate sale of Louis Deglatigny, Rouen.
#1 -
#2 -
#3 -
#4 -
#5 -
#6 -
#7 -
#8 -
#9 -
#10 -
#11 -
#12 -
#13 - "Charlotte Ritt," Gazette des Beaux Arts, Nov 1980, p. 166 (b&w)
#14 -
#15 - "Signora Viazzoli," Baillio (1982), p. 107 (b&w)
#16 -
#17 - "Countess Varvara Nikolaevna Golovin," Countess Varvara Nikolaevna Golovina, née Princess Golitzyna (Варвара Николаевна Головина, урожденная княжна Голицына) (1766-1819)
#18 - "Count Giulio Litta, Knight of Malta," Baillio (1982), p. 107 (b&w)
#19 - "Prince Alexander Borissovitch Kourakin," Lived 1752-1818, Vice Chancellor of Paul I; Ambassador of the Court of Vienna under Alexander I. VLB also prepared a painting of him ca. 1797, which is in the Hermitage.
#20 -
#21 -
#22 - "Countess Kinsky"
#23 -
#24 -
#25 - "Julie Le Brun"
#26 -
#27 -
#28 - "Princess Natalia Ivanovna Kourakin"
#29 -
#30 -
#31 - "Irina Ivanovna Worontzoff" [Irina Ivanovna Vorontzov, née Izmailov]
#32 -
#33 -
#34 -
#35 -
#36-

1800? "Self portrait," graphite on blue paper, 8 5/16" x 6 15/16," inscribed and signed lower left: pour souvenir de / Le Brun fecit. Pierpont Morgan Library, N.Y. Baillio (1982), p. 123 (b&w); museum slide. [Dating is tentative, and it is uncertain where VLB drew this.] See the Baillio (1982) description.

ca. 1800 “Mme Bilibin,” oil on canvas, 35" x 28 3/8" (89 x 72 cm), attributed to VLB “or workshop,” signed L.E. Vigee LeBrun in the arm of the couch.{Not listed or mentioned by VLB.} The identification of the sitter comes from a note on the back of the painting dated 1900, though there is no guarantee that it is accurate. Maria Ivanovna Bilibina née Kusova, (11 June 1784-24 Dec. 1848). The heiress of a St. Petersbourg merchant, she married Yakov Ivanovich Bilibin (14 March 1779-11 July 1854), son of "Big Bilibin" Ivan Kharitonovich, founder of an industrial empire, two-time mayor of the town of Kaluga. Her husband is mentioned several times by Tolstoi in the novel “War and Peace.” In 1812, he funded the local Kaluga militia that repelled Napoleon's Army. Mme Bilibin is the grandmother of the painter and draughtsman Ivan Yakovlevich Bilibin. Image provided by Tamás Strakovits; dates of Mme Bilibina and her husband provided by Timothy F. Boettger.

1799? "Princess Maria Vassilievna Kotchubey," oil on canvas. Hermitage. Starye Gody, Jul-Sep, 1911. The painting was received in 1933 through the State Museum Reserve from the L. M. Kochubei collection in Leningrad. A copy (signature or anonymous?) is in the Arkhangelskoye Estate Museum near Moscow, and is illustrated in Arkhangelskoye, by L.I. Bulavina, S.A. Rozanceva, N.A. Jakimtchuk (Publishing house. Sovetskaja Rossija, Moscow: 1983); and in Vigée Lebrun (2015), Parkstone Int'l, ISBN 9781785250729, p. 157 (color). {Not listed or mentioned by VLB} Maria Vasilyevna Kochubei (1779-1844), born Vasilchikova, was the wife of Victor Pavlovich Kochubei, a diplomat and statesman (in the reign of Alexander I, minister of the interior and chancellor; after 1827, head of the Council of State and the cabinet). She is shown drawing a bust portrait of her uncle, Prince Vasilchikov.

Plato Zubov. {Not listed or mentioned by VLB.} A book on Catherine the Great claims that VLB had painted a portrait of Zubov, who was personal aide-de-camp to the Empress.

ca. 1800 "Artist," graphite on paper, 14 3/8" x 9 1/2"  (36.4 x 24.2 cm). Pushkin Museum, Moscow.

IN BERLIN [1801]

"Louise Auguste von Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen of Prussia," pastel, Schloss Charlottenburg, Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin. The Sweetness of Life (color). {"2 Pastels after the Queen of Prussia."} {"...the Queen of Prussia, who was not then in Berlin, had the goodness to invite me to visit her at Potsdam for she intended to commission her portrait." - Chap. XXVI} Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie von Mecklenburg-Strelitz (10 March 1776, Hannover - 19 July 1810). A daughter of grand duke Karl Ludwig Friedrich of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Friederike Karoline Luise of Hesse-Darmstadt. Married 24 December 1793 to Frederick William III, who succeeded his father as King of Prussia in 1797. The couple had nine children.

Louise Auguste von Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen of Prussia,” located in Castle Dunrobin, near Golspie, Scotland. This pastel was evidently in possession of George Granville Leveson-Gower, the later 2nd Earl of Sutherland (1786-1861). He was an ardent admirer of the Queen, having met her in Nov. 1806 at Königsberg. An engraving was apparently prepared from this pastel, though it was reversed and used a different costume. {"2 Pastels after the Queen of Prussia."} Thanks to Jana Talkenberg for providing the image and information.

Prince Auguste Ferdinand, pastel. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). {"Apart from the two pastel studies commissioned by Her Majesty, I did others, in the same style, of Prince Ferdinand’s family." - Chap. XXVI; "I was later to copy all these pastels in oil, and I did this immediately after my arrival in Paris." - Footnote 2, Chap. XXVI} Born 23 May 1730 in Berlin; died 2 May 1813 in Berlin. Prussian prince and general

A son of Prince Auguste Ferdinand, pastel. {"Apart from the two pastel studies commissioned by Her Majesty, I did others, in the same style, of Prince Ferdinand’s family." - Chap. XXVI; "I was later to copy all these pastels in oil, and I did this immediately after my arrival in Paris." - Footnote 2, Chap. XXVI} This would have been either Friedrich Ludwig Christian (18 November 1772 – 10 October 1806) or Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich August (19 September 1779 - 19 July 1843).

"Princess Louise Radziwill, née Hohenzollern," pastel on paper, 23 1/4" x 16 5/8" (59 x 42 cm). Private collection. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006); Baillio (2015), p. 297 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 213 (color). {"Apart from the two pastel studies commissioned by Her Majesty, I did others, in the same style, of Prince Ferdinand’s family... One of the young princesses, Princess Louise, who had married Prince Radziwill, was pretty and very sweet..." - Chap. XXVI; "I was later to copy all these pastels in oil, and I did this immediately after my arrival in Paris." - Footnote 2, Chap. XXVI} Princess Friederike Dorothea Luise Philippine Radziwiłł, née Hohenzollern (24 May 1770, Berlin - 7 December 1836, Berlin), a daughter of Anna Elisabeth Luise (daughter of the margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt and Sophia Dorothea of Prussia). The sitter's father was considered to be Prince August Ferdinand of Prussia (1730-1813), younger brother of Frederick the Great (lived 1712-86, reigned 1740-86) , but some claim that her biological father was her mother's lover, a cartographer named Friedrich Wilhelm Carl von Schmettau. She was a niece of Prince Heinrich of Prussia, whom VLB also painted. The sitter married in Berlin on 17 March 1796, to Prince Antoni Henryk Radziwiłł (1775-1833), and the couple had five children. The oil painting, virtually identical in composition, is shown below under Paintings done in Paris.

{"1 Mme de Souza, Portuguese ambassadress."} {"Mme de Souza, the Portuguese ambassadress, whose portrait I was painting at the time." - Chap. XXVI} Adélaide de Souza-Botelho, née Filleul (1761-1836). In 1779 she married her first husband, Alexandre Sebastien de Flahaut de Billarderie. She had an affair with Charles Maurice de Talleyrand; their son was called Charles de Flauhaut. She fled France in 1792, but her husband remained and was guillotined in 1793. In 1802 she married the Portuguese ambassador, José Maria de Souza-Botelho (1758-1825). For comparison, here is a portrait by Adélaide Labille-Guiard. [Identified by Jana Talkenberg.]

{"1 Another lady, whose name I have forgotten."}

IN DRESDEN [mid-September 1801]

1801? "Alexander I, Emperor of Russia," oil on canvas, 24 3/4" x 20 1/2", the painting (or a copy) is in the collection of the Royal House of Hannover, at a castle called Fürstenhaus Herrenhausen, Hannover, Germany. Photo from Witt Library. {"3 Half-length, from a portrait of the Emperor Alexander I."} {"I made several large bust portraits of Alexander in Dresden from these pastels [produced in Saint Petersburg], but M. de Krudner brought them back [to France] by sea when the paint was still fresh and they suffered from the journey." - Footnote 2, Chap. XXV} [It sounds as though VLB only prepared pastels of the Emperor and Empress in Russia, and prepared oils in Dresden.]

1801? "Elisaveta Alexeevna, Empress of Russia," oil on canvas, 24 3/4" x 20 1/2." Color photo located by Angela. [Not specifically listed in the Dresden section. It sounds as though VLB prepared pastels of the Emperor and Empress in Russia, and prepared oils of the Emperor (and Empress?) in Dresden. As the dimensions of this work are the same as the portrait of the Emperor (above), the two were probably painted at the same time, as pendants.] There are other versions: version 1 was found on a Russian website; version 2 was found online. A variant, oil on canvas, exists at Arkhangelskoe Palace, Moscow.

1801 {"1 The daughter of Countess Potocka."} When VLB does not give a sitter's name but lists her as "daughter of," the sitter is generally a child or unmarried teen. She does not mention encountering a Potocka in Dresden in her Souvenirs. As far as those she has listed as having previously painted: (1) The 1776 listing "La Comtesse Potocka" is believed by Christie's and Baillio to be Urszula Zamoyska Potocka, but she is not known to have had children until her second marriage with Mniszech. (2) In 1791 in Rome, VLB painted Countess Anna Potocka (her name by her third husband), but she only had one child, a son, and that was by her first husband, Prince Joseph Sanguszko. (3) In Vienna, 1792-95, VLB had painted Countess Anna Teofila Potocka, wife of Seweryn Potocki, and she did have two young daughters in 1801: (a) Julia Potocka (1788, Lubelskie - 18 September 1876), who would marry Kajetan Uruski (d. 5 April 1827) and after his death Bernard Frano Marijan Caboga (6 February 1785, Dubrovnik - 19 November 1855, Vienna); and (b) Paulina Potocka (1793-26 June 1856, Krakow), who would marry Franciszek Ksawery Łubieński (1784-1826). I have not, however, determined if Seweryn Potocki and his wife were in Dresden in 1801.

1801 {"1 A German woman."}

1801 "Teresa Czartoryska," pastel on paper, 11" x 7 5/8" (28 x 19.5 cm); hand-written inscription on bottom: L. E. Vigée Le Brun à Dresde 1800. Regional Museum, Tarnów. Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 123 (color). Teresa Czartoryska (1785-1868). She was the daughter of Prince Józef Klemens Czartoryski (1740-1810) and his wife, Dorota née Jabłonowska (1760-1844). On 24 May 1807, the sitter would marry Prince Henryk Lubomirski (15 Sep 1777-1850), whom VLB had first painted in 1788. According to Danielewicz, p. 125, VLB had prepared this quick pastel sketch and left it as a "calling card" in the hopes of winning a commission for an oil painting. Unfortunately, no larger work was commissioned.

1801 "Unidentified boy," pastel on paper, 12 3/4" x 9 1/2" (32.5 x 24 cm), signed and dated: 1801 L. E. Vigée Le Brun à Dresde.

IN PARIS [late 1801 - mid-April 1803]

VLB didn’t have a separate section for paintings done in Paris during this year and a half period, instead grouping them with the other paintings she did in Paris following her London trip. I have created this section and moved the following paintings here, as they are either dated during this period, or seem certain to have been done immediately after her return from Russia and Germany, rather than three years later after her trip to London.

1801 "Self Portrait in profile," pastel on paper, 21 1/4" x 12 3/8" (54 x 31.5 cm), Musée de la ville de Rouen, France. Baillio (2015), p. 91 (color).

1802 "Louise Auguste von Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen of Prussia," oil on canvas, faux oval (trompe l'oeil stone oculus), 39 3/8" x 32 7/8" (100 x 83.5 cm), signed and dated lower left: Vigée Le Brun / 1802. Hohenzollern Castle. Baillio (2015), p. 295 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 211 (color). {"1 Portrait of the Queen of Prussia, painted after a study I had made in Berlin. Large half-length."}

{"1 Prince Auguste Ferdinand of Prussia."} {"Apart from the two pastel studies commissioned by Her Majesty, I did others, in the same style, of Prince Ferdinand’s family." - Chap. XXVI; "I was later to copy all these pastels in oil, and I did this immediately after my arrival in Paris." - Footnote 2, Chap. XXVI}

{"1 son of Prince Auguste Ferdinand, their son."} {"Apart from the two pastel studies commissioned by Her Majesty, I did others, in the same style, of Prince Ferdinand’s family." - Chap. XXVI; "I was later to copy all these pastels in oil, and I did this immediately after my arrival in Paris." - Footnote 2, Chap. XXVI} This would have been either Friedrich Ludwig Christian (18 November 1772 – 10 October 1806) or Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich August (19 September 1779 - 19 July 1843).

1802 "Princess Louise Radziwill, née Hohenzollern," oil on canvas, faux oval (trompe l'oeil stone oculus), 31 3/4" x 25 1/4" (80.5 x 64 cm), signed and dated lower left: L. E. Vigée / Le Brun / 1802. Private collection. Country Life, 164:714, 14 Sep 1978 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 296 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 212 (color). {"1 Princess Louise Radziwill, his sister."} [Sold by Christie’s in 1978 for £8,000. The painting came from the Radziwiłł family, and is signed, though Christie’s expressed some doubt as to the attribution.] [Prepared from a pastel done in Potsdam or Berlin, see "IN BERLIN (1801)."] Princess Friederike Dorothea Luise Philippine Radziwiłł, née Hohenzollern (24 May 1770, Berlin - 7 December 1836, Berlin), a daughter of Anna Elisabeth Luise (daughter of the margrave of Brandenburg-Schwedt and Sophia Dorothea of Prussia). The sitter's father was considered to be Prince August Ferdinand of Prussia (1730-1813), younger brother of Frederick the Great (lived 1712-86, reigned 1740-86), but some claim that her biological father was her mother's lover, a cartographer named Friedrich Wilhelm Carl von Schmettau. She was a niece of Prince Heinrich of Prussia, whom VLB also painted. The sitter married in Berlin on 17 March 1796, to Prince Antoni Henryk Radziwiłł (1775-1833), and the couple had five children.

1802 "Princess Ekaterina Osipovna Tyufyakina, née Khorvat," oil on canvas, 34 5/8” x 28 1/4” (87.9 x 71.8 cm), signed and dated, lower left: L.E. Vigee LeBrun / a Paris 1802; Chi Mei Museum, Tainan, Taiwan. {"1 Princess Tufiakin; I had only completed the head in Moscow."} {"...I began her portrait [in Moscow]; but as I was only able to finish the head, I took the painting back to Saint Petersburg where not long afterwards I learnt of this pretty person’s death. She was barely seventeen [sic]. I painted her as Iris, draped with a rippling scarf and seated on a bank of cloud." - Chap. XXIV} Lived 1777-1802, the daughter of the Governor of Ecaterinoslav and wife of Prince Petr Ivanovich Tyufyakin (1769-1845), an important court official who later served under Alexander I as Director of the Imperial Theaters from 1819-1821. While VLB erred in remembering her as being 17, her early death at the age of 24 or 25 was tragic nevertheless. Thanks to Angela Demutskiy for sending us the image.]

1802 "Aniela 'Angélique' Czartoryska, née Radziwiłł," oil on canvas, oval, 29 1/8" x 24" (74 x 61 cm). Musée au Palais de Nieborów, Poland. Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 127 (color). Shortly before VLB left St. Petersburg in June 1801, she prepared a study for this work, pastel on paper, mounted on canvas, 16 5/8" x 12 1/4" (42.2 x 31.cm), which is in Petit Palais. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006); Baillio (2015), p. 293 (color). Back in Paris, she completed the oil painting from the pastel study. Aniela Czartoryskaya (1781-1808), was born Princess Radziwiłł, a daughter of Michał Hieronim, Prince Radziwiłł, Palatin of Wilno (10 October 1744, Kraków - 28 March 1831, Warsaw) and his wife Helena Przeździecka. The sitter, nicknamed "Angélique" by her family, was married in 1802 to Prince Konstantin Adam Aleksander Thaddeusz Czartoryski (1773-1860), son of Prince Adam Czartoryski. The couple had one son, Adam Konstanty Czartoryski (24 June 1804, Warsaw - 19 or 23 December 1880,Rokosowo). [Identified by Angela Demutskiy.]

IN LONDON [mid-April 1803 - June(?) 1805]

1803 "Arabella Diana, Duchess of Dorset," oil on canvas, 29 1/2" x 24 1/2" (75 x 62 cm), National Trust, Sevenoaks, Knole, Kent, England; Burlington, 111:262, Apr 1969; Apollo, May 1984, p. 343; Baillio (2015), p. 298 (color). {"1 The Duchess of Dorset."} {"The Duchess of Dorset who is extremely rich, married Lord Wilfort, whom I had met when he was the English ambassador in Saint Petersburg." - Chap. XXXI} Arabella Diana Cope (1767-1825), daughter of Sir Charles Cope, 2nd Baronet (c. 1743 – 14 June 1781) and his wife Catherine Bishopp (30 November 1744 - 1 October 1827). After her father's death, her mother married Charles Jenkinson, 1st Earl of Liverpool (26 April 1729 – 17 December 1808). In 1790, the sitter married John Frederick Sackville, 3rd Duke of Dorset (24 March 1745 – 19 July 1799), the only son of Lord John Philip Sackville. The couple had three children. Following her husband's death, the sitter became very wealthy, and with three small children, she married again, in 1801, to Charles Whitworth, who became 1st Earl of Whitworth. The sitter's three children by her first marriage, were: 1) George John Frederick Sackville, 4th Duke of Dorset (15 November 1793 – 14 February 1815), who died without issue after falling from a horse during a hunt; 2) Lady Mary Sackville (30 July 1792 - 1864), who on 5 August 1811 would marry Other Archer Windsor, 6th Earl of Plymouth (2 July 1789 – 20 July 1833, Deptford), and after 1838 would marry his stepfather, William Pitt Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst (14 January 1773 – 13 March 1857), with no children from either marriage; and 3) Lady Elizabeth Sackville (11 August 1795 - 9 January 1870), who on 21 June 1813 would marry George John Sackville-West, 5th Earl de la Warr (26 October 1791 – 23 February 1869), by whom she had 9 children. On 27 April 1864, Lady De La Warr was created Baroness Buckhurst by Queen Victoria. [Angelica Goodden, in The Sweetness of Life, p. 254, cites a second portrait, attributed to VLB (but which she didn’t list or mention), which is in the private rooms at Knole.]

ca. 1803 "Margaret Chinnery," oil on canvas, 36" x 28" (91.4 x 71.1 cm), signed lower left: L. E. Vigée / Le Brun. Indiana University Art Museum. Apollo, 29:308, June 1939; Antiques, 68:440, Nov 1955; Baillio (1982), p. 124 (b&w); The Sweetness of Life (b&w); museum slide (color); Baillio (2015), p. 299 (color). {"1 Mrs Chinnery."} {"...I went to stay with Mrs Chinnery in Gilwell..." - Chap. XXXI} Margaret Chinnery (16 October 1766?, London - 5 November 1840, Paris), was a daughter of Leonard Tresilian and his wife Margaret Tresilian, née Holland. On 21 October, 1790, the sitter married William Bassett Chinnery (3 March 1766, London - 3 March 1827, Paris), older brother of the painter George Chinnery (5 January 1774 – 30 May 1852). The couple had three children: twins George Robert Chinnery (2 September 1791 - 18 October 1825) and Caroline Chinnery (3 September 1791 - 3 April 1812), and Walter Chinnery (23 April 1793 - 19 November 1802). The couple were close friends of Giovanni Battista Viotti (12 May 1755, Fontanetto Po, Italy – 3 March 1824, London), whom VLB painted later in Paris. The sitter inherited a country estate, Gilwell Park, from her father. Her husband expanded the property, but in 1812 was exposed to have embezzled £80,000 over a 12-year period from his employer, the British Treasury, and the couple was forced to sign over their estate to the Exchequer. The Chinnerys then fled the country, ending up in Paris. Tragically, the sitter outlived her husband and all of her children. In 2002, the remains of the sitter and her husband were repatriated from France to England. See the Baillio (1982) description of this painting (which incorrectly says that VLB painted the two younger children).

ca. 1803 "George Robert Chinnery," unlocated. {"2 Her children."} {"As soon as I entered the sitting room, two little angels, Mrs Chinnery’s son and daughter, sang a charming song... Her daughter [was] then fourteen years old..." - Chap. XXXI} George Robert Chinnery (3 September 1791- 18 October 1825, Madrid) was educated at Christ Church, Oxford (where he became a published poet). George began a career in the Treasury in 1812, surviving the discovery that his father was an embezzler. From 1814, he worked as a secretary to George Canning, the member of Parliament and future Foreign Secretary. George traveled extensively through Europe with Canning, as part of his duties as an officer of the Treasury. The British Library has three manuscript volumes of his journals of travels from 1819-20. For comparison, here is a miniature of the sitter ca. 1825, by Giovanni Trossarelli, and an engraving by Frederick Christian Lewis Sr, after Joseph Slater.

1804 "Young woman playing a lyre (Caroline Chinnery?)," oil on canvas. Yamazaki Mazak Museum of Art, Japan. Museum website. {"2 Her children."} {"As soon as I entered the sitting room, two little angels, Mrs Chinnery’s son and daughter, sang a charming song... Her daughter [was] then fourteen years old..." - Chap. XXXI} [Angela Demutskiy proposed the identification, based upon similarity in appearance to VLB's portrait of the Caroline Chinnery's mother, and based upon similarity in appearance to portraits of Caroline by other artists.] Caroline Chinnery, (3 September 1791 - 3 April 1812) caught whooping cough in 1811 and never fully recovered, dying of tuberculosis.

ca. 1803 "Charlotte Dillon,"oil on canvas, 36" x 28" (91.4 x 71.1 cm) {"1 Mlle Dillon."} Auctioned by Sotheby’s, London, 10 July 2002, Lot 83, which suggested the identification of the sitter. Charlotte Dillon (1788 - 26 September 1866), a daughter of Charles Dillon, 12th Viscount Dillon of Costello-Gallin (6 November 1745, London - 9 November 1813) and his second wife, Marie Rogier (d. 1833). Charlotte Dillon married Frederick Beauclerk (1773 or 1777 - 22 April 1850), son of Aubrey Beauclerk, 5th Duke of St. Albans and Catharine Beauclerk (Ponsonby). The sitter and her husband had four children: (1) Caroline Henrietta Frederica Beauclerk (19 April 1815 - 27 April 1878); (2) Charles William Beauclerk (7 May 1816 - 23 May 1863); (3) Captain Aubrey Frederick James Beauclerk (3 May 1817 - 3 January 1853); and Henrietta Mary Beauclerk (1 July 1818 - January 1887). [Other possibilities for "Mlle. Dillon" were Charlotte's sisters Frances Charlotte Dillon (17 February 1780, London - 17 April 1819), who married Thomas Webb, or Henrietta Dillon (1790 - 1811).]

{"1 Mme Villiers."} {"...I nevertheless succeeded in forming an intimate clique … and was on friendly terms with … the young Villiers ladies ..." - Chap. XXXII} Perhaps Frances Villiers, Countess of Jersey (25 February 1753, St James's – 23 July 1821, Cheltenham), daughter of Rev. Dr Philip Twysden (c.1714 – 2 November 1752) and his second wife Frances Carter. In 1770, she married George Villiers, 4th Earl of Jersey (9 June 1735 – 22 August 1805, Tunbridge Wells), with whom she had ten children. From 1793-1807, she was involved in an affair with the Prince of Wales, the future George IV, while still married to the Earl of Jersey. Frances Villiers actually ran the household of the Prince of Wales, whom VLB painted ca. 1803, increasing the odds that VLB would have met her. VLB mentioned being on friendly terms with "the young Villiers ladies," and Frances Villiers had three unmarried daughters during VLB's time in London: Lady Elizabeth Villiers (d. unmarried 1810); Lady Elizabeth Frances Villiers (1786–1866), who in 1803 married John Ponsonby, 1st Viscount Ponsonby; and Lady Harriet Villiers (1788–1870), who in 1806 married Richard Bagot, Bishop of Oxford. For comparison, here is a portrait of Frances Villiers by Thomas Beach (d. 1806). Of course, the Villiers family is one of Britain's eminent aristocratic families, so there may be many other possibilities of a Mme Villiers and young Villiers ladies; alternatively, the "young Villiers ladies" could have been unrelated to the sitter, "Mme Villiers." VLB also mentioned as friends Lady Bentinck and her sister, and Lord Trimlestown, and I thought perhaps these names would lead to a discovery of mutual friends named Villiers. Lady Bentinck was Mary Bentinck (c. 1785-May 1843), married to Lord William Cavendish Bentinck (14 September 1774 - 17 June 1839). Lord Bentinck's great grandmother had been a Villiers, so perhaps Mme Villiers and the young Villiers ladies were distant cousins, although a biography by John Rosselli, Lord William Bentinck: The Making of a Liberal Imperialist, 1774-1839, does not reference any Villiers. Lady Bentinck's sister was either Olivia Sparrow (1778-1863), married 14 March 1797 to Brigadier-General Robert Bernard Sparrow, or Millicent Acheson (who on 12 September 1826 would marry Rev. J.H. Barber.) Lord Trimlestown was Nicholas Barnewall, 14th Baron Trimlestown (14 April 1796 - 3 November 1836). A summary search of these latter names also did not uncover a close tie to Villiers. Another Mme. Villiers who had recently moved to London was the wife (name undiscovered) of a highly-respected miniature painter, François Huet Villiers (1772?, Paris - 27 July 1813, London), the son of Jean-Baptiste Huet. I do not know if the couple had any "young Villiers ladies" with them. However, VLB was discussing making friends and included the young Villiers ladies in a list with others who were all English; it seems that if she were discussing a French family that she would have noted that.

"Margravine of Brandenburg-Ansbach," unlocated. {"1 The Margravine of Anspach."} {"I had promised to paint the portrait of the Margravine of Anspach..." - Chap. XXXI} Elizabeth Craven (née Lady Elizabeth Berkeley) (17 December 1750, Westminster – 13 January 1828), a daughter of Lt.-Col. Augustus Berkeley, 4th Earl of Berkeley (18 February 1715 – 9 January 1755) and his wife, Elizabeth Drax. On 30 May 1767, the sitter married William Craven, 6th Baron Craven (11 September 1738 - 26 September 1791, Lausanne), with whom she had seven children, at least one of whom VLB painted (see Richard Keppel Craven, below). They sitter and her husband parted in 1780, with the sitter living in France and traveling extensively on the Continent. On 30 October 1791, she married Charles Alexander, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, with whom she had been conducting an affair for a number of years. While in London she and her husband were known as Margrave and Margravine of Barndenburg-Ansbach, their marriage was morganatic, and she was never legally authorized to share his name and title. In fact, on 20 February 1801, she was granted the morganatic title of "Princess (Fürstin) Berkeley" by the last Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II.

{"1 Mme Bering."}

1803-04 "The Prince of Wales," oil on canvas, 23 5/8" x 15 3/4", Earl of Portarlington collection, Australia. {"1 The Prince of Wales."} {"A little before my departure I painted the portrait of the Prince of Wales. I depicted him almost full length and in uniform." - Chap. XXX} George Augustus Frederick, lived 1762-1830, effectively ruled as Prince Regent starting 1811, and became King George IV in 1820 upon the death of his father, George III. The identification of this photograph as a VLB is supported by the National Portrait Gallery, which has an August 1804 pencil drawing squared in ink for transfer, 11 3/4" x 8 3/4" (299 x 223 mm), by Henry Bone, after VLB.

"Vicomtesse de Polatron," oil on canvas. Unlocated. Published: Tony Henri Auguste, vicomte de Reseit,Les reines de l'émigration: Louise d'Esparbès, Comtesse de Polastron. {"1 Mme de Polastron."} Louise de Lussan d’Esparbès (?-1804). She was married to the vicomte de Polastron, a brother of the duchesse de Polignac. As a lady-in-waiting to Marie Antoinette, she met Charles Philippe, the Comte d’Artois (the future Charles X), and later became his mistress, during his exile in London. She died there, in 1804.

"Countess Alexandra Andreevna Dietrichstein, née Shouvalov," unlocated. {"1 Countess Driedrestein."} Countess Aleksandra Andreevna Shuvalova (8 December 1775 10 November 1847, Vienna) was a daughter of Count Andrei Petrovich Shuvalov (Андрей Петрович Шувалов) (23 June 1743 - 24 April 1789) and Countess Ekaterina Petrovna Saltykova (Екатерина Петровна Салтыкова) (2 October 1743 - 13 October 1816, Rome). The sitter was married 10 July 1797 to Count (later Prince) Franz Josef Karl Johann Nepomuk Quirin von Dietrichstein Proskau-Leslie (28 April 1767 - 8 July 1854). The marriage proved very unhappy, though, and the marriage ended in 1804. They had one child, Joseph Franz, Prince of Dietrichstein (28 March 1798 – 10 July 1858, Friedland, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany). VLB had painted the sitter twice in St. Petersburg, once before her marriage, and again afterwards.

{"1 Polastron the younger as a child."} Probably Louis, son of Mme de Polastron and her husband, the vicomte de Polastron.

ca. 1805 "Lord Byron," oil on canvas, 22 1/4" x 18 1/4," American Art News, Apr. 30, 1921; Burlington, 1924.{"1 Lord Byron."}  George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) became 6th Baron Byron of Rochdale at the age of 10, on 21 May 1798. He did not win fame as a poet until 1809, and his family's estate had been drastically diminished by the actions of his late father. [These factors led Goodden, The Sweetness of Life, p. 257, to believe this listing was a mistake for Prince Biron of Courland (though VLB has a separate listing later in this section for that sitter).] However, Lord Byron's mother was still indulgent of her son, raising funds to send him to Harrow (from 1801-July 1805), and perhaps she arranged to have his portrait painted by VLB. The sitter does bear a resemblance to another artist’s portrait of Byron. A discussion of the attribution and identification of the sitter is available: page 1 and page 2.

1803-05 "Prince Ivan Ivanovich Bariatinski," oil on canvas, 34 1/4" x 26 3/8" (87 x 67 cm), Pushkin Museum, Moscow. Baillio (2015), p. 301 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 215 (color). {"1 Prince Bariatinski."} {"...Prince Bariatinsky, who had lived in London for many years..." - Chap. XXIX} VLB had previously painted the sitter in Russia. [Elena Sharnova, associate professor, University of Human Sciences, Moscow, and the former curator of French Paintings in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, informed us that the painting is located at the Pushkin.]

ca. 1796-1801 "Prince Ivan Ivanovich Bariatinski," pastel, 19 1/2" x 15 3/4" (49 x 40 cm), Pushkin Museum, Moscow, photo located at Witt Library. [Elena Sharnova, associate professor, University of Human Sciences, Moscow, and the former curator of French Paintings in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, informed us that the pastel is located at the Pushkin.]

"American woman," {"1 A very pretty American woman."} An engraving also exists.

"Kepel Richard Craven," unlocated. {"1 M. Kepell, son of the Margravine of Anspach."} Keppel Richard Craven (1779 – 24 June 1851, Naples), third and youngest son of William Craven, 6th baron Craven (11 September 1738 - 26 September 1791, Lausanne), by Elizabeth Berkeley Craven (17 December 1750, Westminster – 13 January 1828). He published A Tour through the Southern Provinces of the Kingdom of Naples (1821), and Italian Scenes: a Series of interesting Delineations of Remarkable Views and of Celebrated Remains of Antiquity (1825), and Excursions in the Abruzzi and Northern Provinces of Naples (1838). He was friends with Sir William Drummond, Sir William Gell, and Lady Blessington. Per Goodden, The Sweetness of Life, p. 252, the Margravine’s memoirs refer to her son’s portrait having been done in France by an artist of Marie-Antoinette’s, so there may also be an earlier, unlisted portrait of this sitter (or one of his brothers).

"Self Portrait," {"3 Self-portraits."} [Engraving located by Angela Demutskiy.]

1804-05 "Giuseppina Grassini," oil on canvas, 54 1/2" x 42 1/2," Photo from the Witt Library. {"3 Mme Grassini; two in oriental costume, one large the other small, and another half-length."}{"The two great singers of the London Opera, Mrs Billington and Mme Grassini, came and sang two duets together..."- Chap. XXIX} [See also the portraits VLB painted upon her return to Paris.]

1805 "Giuseppina Grassini in the role of Zaïra," oil on canvas, 50" x 37 3/8" (127 x 95 cm). Musée des Beaux Arts, Rouen, Emporium (detail), Oct 1940, p. 174 (b&w); The Sweetness of Life (color); Baillio (2015), P. 302 (color). {"3 Mme Grassini; two in oriental costume, one large the other small, and another half-length."} This portrait had been dated 1804, but Goodden, in The Sweetness of Life, p. 246, notes that while Grassini came to London in 1804, she didn’t sing the part of Zaïra until 1805. VLB bequeathed this portrait to Rouen.

1805 "Preliminary study of Giuseppina Grassini in the role of Zaïra," black chalk, pastel on brown paper, 16 5/8" x 15 5/8" (42.4 x 39.8 cm). Auctioned 6-July-1999. Baillio (2015), p. 303 (color).

"Giuseppina Grassini," oil on canvas, 31 1/2" x 25" (80 x 63.5 cm). {"3 Mme Grassini; two in oriental costume, one large the other small, and another half-length."} [This portrait had been on-loan to Musée Calvet, Avignon, until being returned to its owner in 1998, and submitted to Sotheby’s for auction.] Angelica Goodden, in The Sweetness of Life, p. 310-11, reports that VLB bequeathed a bust-length portrait of this sitter to the Vaucluse Academy in Avignon, which had made VLB an honorary member in 1827.

1804 "Lady Perceval," pastel, 18 7/8" x 14 3/4" (48 x 37.5 cm), signed and dated: LeBrun / 1804. Private collection. Published in André Blum, Madame Vigée-Lebrun peintre des grandes dames du XVIIIe siécle, 1919; Vigée Lebrun (2015), Parkstone Int'l, ISBN 9781785250729, p. 227 (color). {Not listed by VLB. Presumably the below listing "portrait of an Irishwoman" would belong to a sitter who was not famous, and not the wife of the Attorney General.} Born Jane Wilson (1769-1844), she and her older sister Margaretta were courted by the Perceval brothers. Their father approved Margaretta's marriage to Charles Perceval (Lord Arden), a wealthy Member of Parliament and Lord of the Admiralty, but disapproved of the match between Jane and Spencer Perceval, who was a modest barrister. The couple eloped, and by the time VLB met them, Spencer Percival had himself become a Member of Parliament and had been selected Attorney General. (He would later rise to become Prime Minister, 1809-12, being assassinated in office.) In 1815, Jane married Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Henry Carr, who died in 1821.

{"1 Portrait of an Irishwoman."}

{"1 Lady Georgina, daughter of Lady Gordon."} Georgiana Gordon (1781 - 1853), was the daughter of Alexander Gordon, 4th Duke of Gordon (18 June 1743 – 17 June 1827) and his wife, Jane, née Maxwell (c. 1748 – 14 April 1812). In London on 23 June 1803, she married John Russell, 6th Duke of Bedford (6 July 1766 – 20 October 1839). For comparison, the National Portrait Gallery has: an 1803 mezzotint by Samuel William Reynolds, after John Hoppner; an 1804 stipple engraving by Mackenzie, after Robert William Satchwell; and an 1807 stipple engraving by Mackenzie, after William Marshall Craig.

{"1 Le Prince Biron de Courlande in hunting costume."} Gustav Kalixt Biron, Prince of Courland (1780-1821). He was the son of Carl Ernst Biron (1728-1801), and a nephew of Peter Biron (1724-1800). The family’s estates were mostly in Silesia, now Poland, but they had many other estates and palaces throughout Europe. [Identified by Jana Talkenberg.]

1810 "Princess Biron of Courtland," oil on canvas, 31 7/8" x 24", signed on left on back of chair: Mme Lebrun 1810. [This photo was originally found in the Witt Library, Olivier Blanc supplied a cleaner version.] Another version, oil on canvas, 82.2 x 66 cm, was formerly situated in castle Gross-Wartenberg in Low-Silesia (now Poland); the castle was destroyed at the end of World War II, but the painting survived and is now in the National Museum Wroclaw, Poland. {Not listed by VLB, though VLB lists a painting of the sitter's husband, above.} Born Franziska (Fanny), Countess of Maltzahn (23 Sept. 1790-25 March 1849). She was married 8 Sept. 1806 to Gustav Kalixt Biron, Prince of Courland (1780 – 1821), a portrait of whom VLB listed, above. [Biographical information and data on the alternate version from Jana Talkenberg.]

{"Sea views in pastel and several landscapes."} {"I made several excursions on to the sea with the Margravine. Once we landed on the Isle of Wight, an island which stands high on a rock and rather resembles Switzerland." - Chap. XXXI}

{"The Duc de Monpensier would sometimes call for me and we would go out to sketch together. He took me to the terrace at Richmond and showed me the splendid view; from that height it was possible to look down upon a large stretch of the river." - Chap. XXXI}

1803 Mrs. Canning {"... when I painted portraits such as that of Mrs Canning among others, which I did in 1803 ..." - Letter VII}

1803 "Portrait of a Woman," oil on canvas, 35 3/4" x 28" (90.8 x 71.1 cm), signed and dated lower right: L.E. Vigée / Le Brun / Londres / 1803. National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, D.C. {Not listed by VLB.} Some scholars believe this to be Anne Catherine Augier Vestris (1777–1809), a French dancer who went by the stage name Aimée. Anne Catherine was the wife of dancer Auguste Vestris (1760-1842). VLB had mentioned the two dancers in Letter VIII of her Souvenirs.

1804 "Mdm Vestris," 35 1/2" x 27 1/2," sold 5/15/1908 by Christie, London, to Davis, £157. {Not listed by VLB.}

1803-05 "Earl of Radnor," oil on canvas. {Not listed or mentioned by VLB.} William Pleydell-Bouverie, third Earl Radnor (11 May 1779 - 9 April 1869), styled Viscount Folkestone until 1828, distinguished whig politician. Partly educated in France, as a boy he was introduced to Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, and witnessed the early stages of the Revolution. He returned to England, and entered Parliament in 1801.

"Frederica Charlotte Ulrica, Duchess of York." [Not listed or mentioned by VLB.] The National Portrait Gallery has a stipple engraving, 11 in. x 5 5/8 in. (278 mm x 218 mm) plate size; 11 1/2 in. x 9 in. (292 mm x 230 mm) paper size, by Marie Anne Bourlier, published 19 May 1806 by Edward Harding, is after VLB’s painting. Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia (Friederike Charlotte Ulrike Katharina) (7 May 1767 – 6 August 1820) was the only daughter of Frederick William II of Prussia and his first wife Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg. On 29 September 1791, she married Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany (16 August 1763 – 5 January 1827), second son of King George III.

1805-06 “Corisande de Gramont, Lady Ossulston (later Countess of Tankerville),” pastel on paper laid down on canvas, 18” x 13 1/4” (45.8 x 33.6 cm). Auctioned at Bonhams, New York: Tuesday, April 21, 2009 [Lot 89]; Baillio (2016), p. 216 (color). {Not listed by VLB.} Corisande Armandine Sophie Léonie Hélène de Gramont (1782-January 23, 1865), daughter of Antoine Louis Marie de Gramont, duc de Gramont and Aglaé de Polignac, and a granddaughter of Gabrielle de Polastron, duchesse de Polignac. Her arms were seriously burned by a 1803 fire at Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh, Scotland, with her mother dying as a result of injuries she sustained in that incident. On 28 July 1806, Corisande married Charles Augustus Bennett, Lord Ossulston (28 April 1776 – 25 June 1859). He was an English Member of Parliament from 1806-18 and from 1820-22. Upon the death of his father in 1822, he became 5th Earl of Tankerville. [Thanks to Angela for the biographical data.] A note indicates the pastel was completed in 1806, but VLB was back in Paris by then, while the sitter was in England. Perhaps it dates to 1805, or VLB began work on it then and completed it in Paris. Another possibility is that VLB prepared the pastel in 1806 from her memory of the sitter in 1805.

FOLLOWING MY RETURN TO PARIS [July 1805 - 1842]

1806 "Angelica Catalani," oil on canvas, 48" x 36" (122 x 91.5 cm), signed and dated lower right: L. E. Vigée Le Brun / a paris 1806. Private Collection. Baillio (1982), p. 125 (b&w); Art in America, Nov 1982, p. 78 (b&w). {"1 Mme Catalani with both hands showing, standing near a piano and singing."} {"The first person I befriended on my return from London was Mme Catalani, then the darling of Paris... I painted a portrait of this charming woman..." - Chap. XXXII} [This portrait, formerly owned by the Kimbell, was sold by Sotheby’s in London on 5 July 1989 for $400,000. A replica (not by VLB?), oil on canvas, 48" x 36" (122 x 91.5 cm) had been in the Youssoupoff collection, and is currently at the Archangelskoye Museum outside Moscow.] Lived 1779-1849. See the Baillio (1982) description.

1806 "Caroline Murat with her daughter, Letizia," oil on canvas, 85 1/4" x 56 1/2" (216.5 x 143.5 cm), signed and dated lower left: L.E. Vigée Le Brun 1807. Musée National du Château de Versailles (Trianon). Baillio (2015), p. 305 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 219 (color). {"1 Mme Murat, full length, holding her daughter."} {"[Napoléon] Bonaparte … commission[ed] me to paint a portrait of his sister, Mme Murat. ...I included Mme Murat’s daughter in the painting, a very pretty little girl..."- Chap. XXXII} [VLB describes a long time between sittings, with her having to modify the sitter’s hair, jewelry, and dresses each time.] Caroline Bonaparte (25 March 1782 – 18 May 1839) was Napoléon’s youngest sister. On 20 January 1800, she married Joachim Murat (1767-1815), a brilliant cavalry officer who had served in many campaigns with Napoléon. In 1808, Murat succeeded Joseph Bonaparte as King of Naples. The couple had four children. Their second child, pictured, was Marie Letizia Joséphine Annonciade Murat (26 April 1802, Paris - 12 March 1859, Bologna). On 27 October 1823, in Venice, Letizia married Guido Taddeo Pepoli, Marchese Pepoli, Conte di Castiglione (Bologna, 7 September 1789 - Bologna, 2 March 1852), and had one daughter.

1808 "Self portrait," oil on canvas, 16 1/4" x 13" (41.3 x 33 cm), Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 93 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 225 (color). {4 Self-portraits for my friends."} {"The only payment I was able to make M. and Mme Konig for their hospitality, was a self portrait in oil that I sent them from Paris." - Footnote 1, Switzerland Letter IX.} Auctioned 21-Oct-1997.

1818 “Self Portrait,” pastel, signed and dated: M. Le Brun pour son amie M.e Briffaut 1818. Portrety Polskie Elzbiety Vigée-Lebrun, by Jerzy Mycielski & Stanislav Wasylewski, 1927. Auctioned by Sotheby’s 2007. {4 Self-portraits for my friends."}

{"3 Portraits of Mme Grassini; one to the knee, the third with one hand showing."} 

{"1 M. Ragani, Mme Grassini’s husband, large half-length."}

"Victoire Pauline de Riquet de Caraman," unlocated. {"1 La Vicomtesse de Vaudreuil, niece [sic] of M. le Comte de Vaudreuil."} {In London: "Mme la Comtesse de Vaudreuil was young and pretty. She had the most beautiful blue eyes, a charming face and the freshest appearance." - Chap. XXXI} Victoire Pauline de Riquet de Caraman (1764-1834). In 1781, she married Jean-Louis, Viscount of Vaudreuil (1763-1816), lieutenant-General in the armies of the king and son of a family whose members had been governors of Louisiana and Canada. [VLB erred: Rather than being a niece of the Comte de Vaudreil, Victoire Pauline de Riquet de Caraman was married to his first cousin, the Vicomte de Vaudreuil.] VLB first painted the sitter in 1785, in connection to which Baillio (1982) suggested that this later listing may be a copy of the earlier painting. However, the National Portrait Gallery includes an 1810 pen and ink drawing, 3 1/4" x 2 3/4" (84 x 70 mm) by Henry Bone after VLB, which seems to show an older sitter rather than being a copy of the 1785 painting.

{"2 sons of Comte and Vicomtesse de Vaudreuil."} {...during my stay I painted the portraits of her two sons." - Chap. XXXI}

{"2 Le Comte de Vaudreuil, half-length."} {In London: "I met the amiable Comte de Vaudreuil again in London... He had married his niece in England..." - Chap. XXXI; "During his exile, he married one of his cousins in England...; they had two sons..." - Pen Portraits}

"Duchesse de Guiche," Vigée LeBrun, p. 146 (Doubleday, 1903), where it was identified as a self-portrait of VLB. However, Angela Demutskiy found an engraving that identified this as a portrait of the Duchesse de Guiche. {"3 Portraits of the Duchesse de Guiche, Mme de Polignac’s daughter."} The Duchesse de Guiche had died in a house fire in Scotland in 1803, so these portraits were painted from memory. [Baillio (1982) cites a "Duchesse de Guiche," now in a private collection in Paris, as having been exhibited at the Salon of 1824. VLB painted this sitter on many occasions, and I don’t know which was exhibited in 1824.]

ca. 1799-1801 "Atalanta," oil on canvas, 42 x 40”. Sotheby’s. In Greek mythology, Atalanta was an excellent runner who offered to marry any man able to defeat her in a race. Venus gave Hippomenes three golden apples. Whenever Atalanta started to overtake him, Hippomenes dropped one, and Atalanta stopped to pick it up, falling behind and losing the race. {Not listed or mentioned by VLB.} Some believe the sitter to be Julie LeBrun, while Angela Demutskiy believes that the sitter is Princess Potemkine (see next listing). An engraved version looks more like Julie LeBrun than the actual painting.

1797-1805 "Ecaterina Michailovna Potemkine, later Countess Ribeaupierre," unlocated, no known reproduction [but see previous listing for Atalanta, as Angela Demutskiy believes the sitter was Princess Potemkine]. {"1 The young Princess Potemski, three-quarter length."} [Nikolenko believes the portrait was started in Russia, and finished in Paris.] The daughter of Tatiana Vassilievna Engelhardt (Princess Potemkin by her first marriage, and Princess Youssoupoff by her second marriage). [It’s possible this was done during VLB’s initial return to Paris, 1801-03, before her trip to London.]

{"1 Mme Constans, half-length."}

1815 "Comtesse Marie Adélaïde Geneviève d'Andlau," unlocated. {"1 The Comtesse d’Andlau with both hands showing."} {"My own first visits were to my best and oldest friends … the Comtesse d’Andlau, a very charming woman, who had a very refined intellect..." - Chap. XXVIII} Comtesse Marie Adélaïde Geneviève d'Andlau, née Helvétius (26 January 1754, Saint-Roch parish (Paris) - 20 November 1817, chateau de Vore, Remalard), was the daughter of the French philosopher, Claude Adrien Helvétius and Anne-Catherine "Minette" de Ligniville d’Autricourt (1722-1800), who came from a prominent aristocratic family, related to Marie Antoinette. The sitter was famous for her beauty and personality. In Paris on 27 September 1772, she married François-Antoine Henri d’Andlau-Hombourg (15 April 1736, Hombourg (Alsace) - 20 July 1820, Paris). They lived in Versailles, and the sitter was close to Marie Antoinette. The couple had seven children: 1) Anne Catherine; 2) Henriette Geneviève; 3) Elisabeth Adélaïde Eléonore (died at birth, 16 June 1777, Paris); 4) Armand-Gaston Félix; 5) Jean-Stanislas (27 December 1783 - 7 April 1789); 6) Joseph Antoine Gothard; and 7) Hardouin Gustave. Of the five children who survived to adulthood, VLB painted four of them, listed immediately below with their biographical information. VLB had painted the sitter in 1786, which likely corresponds to the misreading or poor spelling "Daudelot." VLB did not list a portrait of her son Joseph Antoine Gothard (born 2 September 1787, Hombourg (Haut-Rhin)), who was perhaps busy with his military career. VLB also did not list a portrait of the comte d'Andlau. An 1897 exhibition of VLB’s work referred to an oil on canvas of Stanislas d’Andlau, 57 x 46 cm, belonging to Comtesse de Chanaleille--perhaps VLB had painted Jean-Stanislas as a young boy prior to his death in 1789.

1815? "Comtesse Anne-Catherine d’Orglande," collection d’Orglandes, château de Lonné (Orne). {"2 The Comtesse de Rosambeau and la Comtesse d’Orglande, daughters of the Comtesse d’Andlau, both with their hands showing."} {"… at the same time I saw her two daughters, Mme de Rosambo and Mme d’Orglande, worthy of their mother, being both clever and beautiful." - Chap. XXVIII} Anne-Catherine d'Orglande, née d’Andlau (9 July 1773, Paris - 3 February 1855, Paris), a daughter of comte François-Antoine Henri d’Andlau-Hombourg (15 April 1736, Hombourg (Alsace) - 20 July 1820, Paris) and comtesse Marie Adélaïde Geneviève d'Andlau, née Helvétius (26 January 1754, Saint-Roch parish (Paris) - 20 November 1817, chateau de Vore, Remalard). In 1791, at Verderonne, she married Nicolas François Dominique Camille, comte d’Orglandes (1767-1857).

1815? "Comtesse Henriette Geneviève le Peletier de Rosanbo," collection Le Peletier de Rosanbo, château du Mesnil, Fontenay-Saint-Père (Yvelines). {"2 The Comtesse de Rosambeau and la Comtesse d’Orglande, daughters of the Comtesse d’Andlau, both with their hands showing."} {"… at the same time I saw her two daughters, Mme de Rosambo and Mme d’Orglande, worthy of their mother, being both clever and beautiful." - Chap. XXVIII} Comtesse Henriette Geneviève le Peletier de Rosanbo, née d'Andlau (4 December 1774, Paris - 5 May 1826, Paris), a daughter of comte François-Antoine Henri d’Andlau-Hombourg (15 April 1736, Hombourg (Alsace) - 20 July 1820, Paris) and comtesse Marie Adélaïde Geneviève d'Andlau, née Helvétius (26 January 1754, Saint-Roch parish (Paris) - 20 November 1817, chateau de Vore, Remalard). On 10 January 1790, she married Louis Marie Le Pelletier, marquis de Rosanbo (1777-1856). [Photo provided by Olivier Blanc.]

1815 "Armand Gaston Félix d'Andlau," oil on canvas, 31" x 21 3/4" (78.8 x 55.2 cm). Private collection, Allemagne. {"2 MM. d’Andlau, their two brothers."} Baillio (2015), p. 313 (color). Armand Gaston "Castor" Felix (16 November 1779, Paris - 16 July 1860, chateau de Verderonne), a son of comte François-Antoine Henri d’Andlau-Hombourg (15 April 1736, Hombourg (Alsace) - 20 July 1820, Paris) and comtesse Marie Adélaïde Geneviève d'Andlau, née Helvétius (26 January 1754, Saint-Roch parish (Paris) - 20 November 1817, chateau de Vore, Remalard). The sitter was écuyer de Napoléon I, comte d'Andlau et de l'Empire (upon his father's death in 1820), commandeur de la Légion d'honneur. On 4 February 1823, in Nancy, he married Pauline Joséphine d'Hennezel de Gemmelaincourt (15 December 1804, Nancy - 26 January 1873, chateau de Verderonne). They had three children: (1) Général comte Joseph Hardouin Gustave d’Andlau (1824-92), ordinance officer for Napoléon III; (2) Helene Anne Charlotte, who in 1843 married vicomte Mathieu Jean de Charrin; and (3) Cécile Blanche (1827-96), who married comte Adolphe Gustave de Chanaleilles.

1815 "Hardouin Gustave d'Andlau," oil on canvas, 25 5/8" x 32" (65 x 81.5 cm), Rémalard, Château de Vore, Andlau collection. Baillio (2015), p. 312 (b&w). {"2 MM. d’Andlau, their two brothers."} Hardouin Gustave (2 September 1787, Paris - 8 June 1850, Paris), a son of comte François-Antoine Henri d’Andlau-Hombourg (15 April 1736, Hombourg (Alsace) - 20 July 1820, Paris) and comtesse Marie Adélaïde Geneviève d'Andlau, née Helvétius (26 January 1754, Saint-Roch parish (Paris) - 20 November 1817, chateau de Vore, Remalard). The sitter was 1er baron d'Andlau et de l'Empire (1810), maréchal de camp, écuyer de l'impératrice Joséphine (1810), député de l'Orne (1830-31). In September 1810, he married Aglaé Tourteau d'Orvilliers (1792 - 15 March 1868).

1805? "Giambattista Viotti," Connoisseur, Sep 1911, p. 152. {"1 Viotti, the famous violinist."} {"...shortly after my arrival in England … I went to stay with Mrs Chinnery in Gilwell, where I met the celebrated Viotti." - Chap. XXXI} Giovanni Battista Viotti (12 May 1755, Fontanetto Po, Italy – 3 March 1824, London), Italian violinist and composer. Director of French and Italian opera companies in Paris and London.

1805? {"1 The Marquise de Grollier painting flowers."} {"My own first visits were to my best and oldest friends, the Marquise de Grollier ..." - Chap. XXVIII; "Mme de Grollier was a fine flower painter." - Pen Portraits} This may be a copy of the earlier portrait (listed under 1788).

1814 "Allegory of the Genius of Alexander," 43 3/8" x 33 1/4" (110 x 84.5 cm), inscribed: Alexander / Magna / Paris / 31 Mars / 1814. It also looks like something, perhaps VLB’s name (printed, not scripted) was rubbed out to the left of the date. Hermitage. VLB had painted Prince Lubomirski at around the age of ten, in 1787-88, and here paints him in a similar pose as an adult. Czar Alexander visited France in April 1814, and the painting could have been prepared for him. The inscription was quite possibly added by someone other than VLB, and could have been added years after the painting was produced. [Sitter identified by Angela Demutskiy, who also located the color image.]

ca. 1814 "Mme Pierre-Germain de Thellusson," oil on canvas, 31 1/2" x 24 7/8" (80 x 63 cm), private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 311 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 226 (color). Jeanne Rosalie de Reghat (5 September 1769, Paris - 14 March 1852) was a daughter of Pierre de Reghat (1739-96) and Marie Jaunez (1736-1826). On 12 March 1787, she married comte Honoré Théodore de Lascaris de Vintimille (born ca. 1740), whom she divorced 6 December 1793, when he emigrated at the time of the Revolution. After narrowly avoiding the guillotine, she remarried on 3 October 1796 to Pierre Germain de Thellusson, baron de Coppet (1767-1831), with whom she had three daughters: 1) Émilienne (1796-1859), who would marry baron Adolphe de Maussion; 2) Rosalie Camille (1797-1864), who on 22 April 1816 would marry Auguste de Poret (1790-1866); and 3) Jenny Hersilie (1801-85), who on 25 February 1818 would marry Denis-Marie de Rougemont de Löwenberg. VLB did not list this sitter. [Information and image courtesy of Jana Talkenberg.]

{"1 The Bailli de Crussol, large half-length."} This may be a copy of the earlier 1787 portrait (listed under 1788).

"Mlle de Grénonville"{"1 Mlle de Grénonville, half-length."} Mlle Duval de Grenonville (1801-1882), who in 1822 married count Georges Joseph Victor de Caraman Chimay (1790-1860). [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

ca. 1824 "Aglaé Antonovna Davidov, née duchesse de Grammont," oil on canvas, 32 1/2" x 26", Joseph Baillio identifies the sitter, an identification relied upon by Sotheby's for its January 30, 2014 sale. There are two signature versions: this rectangular painting and an oval. An anonymous copy, in rectangular format, was auctioned in Paris, Drouot-Richelieu, June 26, 2002, lot 83 (attributed to the French School, c. 1820, entourage of Baron Gérard). {"1 Mme Davidoff with hand showing."} [Baillio (1982) lists this as exhibited at the Salon of 1824. A miniature after this painting is in Poushkine by Brockhaus & Ephron.]. Aglaya Antonovna Davydova, née Aglaé Angélique Gabrielle duchess de Gramont (1787-1842?). A daughter of the Duchess de Guiche et Gramont (and thus a granddaughter to the Duchess de Polignac). Her sister was Countesss Tankerville, whom VLB also painted. She married General Aleksandr Lvovich Davydov (1773-1833) in 1805. She later married Marshal Count Horace François Bastien Sébastiani de La Porta in 1834 or 35.[Biographical information courtesy of Angela Demutskiy.]

1828 "Charles François de Riffardeau, duc de Rivière," oil, 29 1/8" x 23 7/8" (74 x 60.6 cm). Private collection; auctioned 19 June 1994 by Sotheby's (Monaco). La Revue du Louvre, 25:2:back viii, 1975 (b&w). {"1 Marquis de Rivière for Charles X, half-length."} {"When I learnt how Charles X grieved the loss of such a dear friend, I thought I might try and paint M. de Rivière from memory, having already done this on several other occasions; I was fortunate enough to succeed, and took the portrait straight to the King..." - Pen Portraits} Charles François de Riffardeau, vicomte, marquis, and finally duc de Rivière (17 December 1763, Ferté-sur-Cher - 21 April 1828, Paris), a son of Charles François de Riffardeau de Corsac and Agnès Élisabeth Cailleteau de La Chasseloire. On 4 June 1811 in Paris, he married Marie Louise de La Ferté-Meung (1776 - 1860). The couple had three children: (1) Charles Antoine Adrien (1 July 1812, Cervon (Nièvre) - 22 January 1870, Paris), who on 14 April 1841 would marry Stéphanie (1819-1872), a daughter of Arthus Hugues Gabriel Timoléon (1790-1857), comte de Cossé-Brissac; (2) Adrienne Charlotte (12 July 1814 - 14 June 1875, Paris), who on 12 June 1839 married Hippolyte de Solages (1809-1850); and (3) Louis Marie Charles (8 July 1817, Constantinople - 31 August 1890), 3e duc de Rivière, sénateur du Cher (1876-1885). The sitter was a soldier, diplomat, and politician; in 1820, he purchased the Venus de Milo a few months after its discovery, and offered it as a gift to King Louis XVIII, who placed it in the Louvre.

1824 "General Charles Yves Cesar Cyr, comte du Coëtlosquet," oil on canvas, 29 1/2" x 23 1/2" (75 x 59.5 cm). Private collection, New York. Baillio (2015), p. 321 (color). {"1 The Comte de Coëtlosquet, half-length."} General Charles Yves Cesar Cyr, comte du Coëtlosquet (21 July 1783 - 23 January 1836), a son of Etienne François Denys du Coëtlosquet (24 September 1756 - ?) and his wife, Françoise du Bois des Cours de La Maisonfort (1762-?). The sitter was a French soldier and officer who served 1799-1831, surviving many battles, sometimes with injuries. The sitter never married, though based on the disposition of his estate and other circumstantial evidence, it appears he had a son called Charles-Louis Du Bois (15 February 1823 - 28 January 1842) with his cousin, Louise de Pron (see below listing). [The portrait was exhibited at the Salon of 1824, showing the general with the Order of Saint Louis, which was awarded to him August 1823. In October 1826, the general was also awarded the Legion of Honour, which was added to the painting.] Biographical information from Baillio (2015) and from Michèle Hannoosh and Bertrand and Lorraine Servois, Delacroix, ‘J.’ and ‘Still life with lobsters.’

1818 "Louise de Pron," pastel, 16 3/4" x 12 5/8" (42.5 x 32.1 cm), signed Le Brun 1818. Unlocated; auctioned 3 April 1992. Photo from Witt Library; Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). {"1 His niece [sic], Mme de Pront."} Louise du Bois des Cours de La Maisonfort (17 May 1787, château de la Maisonfort, Bitry - 4 September 1842, Beffes), nicknamed "Sarah," was a daughter of Antoine Philippe du Bois des Cours, marquis de La Maisonfort (30 July 1763, Bitry - 2 October 1827, Lyon) and his wife, Adélaïde Gascoing de Berthun, a close friend of VLB. The marquis was a maternal uncle of General Charles Yves Cesar Cyr, comte du Coetlosquet (see above listing), and thus the sitter was actually his cousin rather than his niece. On 1 February 1808, she married Louis Jules Barbon Rossignol de Pron, bearing him a son Adrien (29 November 1808, Nevers - after 1851). Her husband was institutionalized and later ruled insane. The sitter became a mistress of Eugene Delacroix and his friend Charles Louis Raymond Soulier. Circumstantial evidence suggests that she also became a mistress of her cousin, the comte du Coëtlosquet, bearing him a son Charles-Louis Du Bois (15 February 1823 - 28 January 1842). Biographical information in part from Michèle Hannoosh and Bertrand and Lorraine Servois, Delacroix, ‘J.’ and ‘Still life with lobsters.’ [VLB referenced a painting of Mme de Pron for 1818, and the pastel bears that date. Thus, it is assumed, but not certain, that this pastel represents Mme de Pron, rather than another sitter.]

1823 "Count Emmanuel Nikolayevich Tolstoy," oil on canvas, 36 3/8" x 28 1/2" (92.5 x 72.5 cm), signed and dated (lower right): L.E. Vigee Le Brun / 1823. Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 319 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 231 (color). {Not listed or mentioned by VLB.} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited at the Salon of 1824.] Count Emmanuel (1802-25) was a son of Count Nikolai Alexandrovich Tolstoy (grand marshal under Alexander I) and Countess Anna Ivanovna Tolstoy (née Princess Bariatinsky, whom VLB also painted). VLB had also painted the sitter's maternal uncle, Prince Ivan Ivanovich Baryatinsky.

1828? "Duchesse de Berry," oil on canvas. {"2 SAR the Duchesse de Berri with both hands showing."} {" I painted two portraits of Mme la Duchesse de Berri. In the first she is wearing a dress of red velvet and in the second a dress of blue velvet." - Chap. XXXIV} Marie-Caroline de Deux-Siciles (1798-1870), the daughter of Francesco di Borbone (lived 1777-1830, ruled as King of the Two Sicilies, 1825-30). In 1816, she married the duc de Berry, Charles-Ferdinand dArtois (1778-1820), who was the second son of Charles X. After her husband's assassination by a fanatic, she gave birth to his son, Henri, duc de Bordeaux, later comte de Chambord. In 1833, she married again, to Ettore Carlo Lucchesi Palli.

1824 "Duchesse de Berry," oil on canvas, 39 3/8" x 29 1/2" (100 x 75 cm), signed and dated lower left: L.E. Vigée / Le Brun / . . . 4. Private collection. Baillio (2016), p. 232 (color). {"2 S.A.R. the Duchesse de Berri with both hands showing."} {" I painted two portraits of Mme la Duchesse de Berri. In the first she is wearing a dress of red velvet and in the second a dress of blue velvet." - Chap. XXXIV} [This portrait was exhibited at the Salon of 1824, per Baillio (1982). He cites two extant versions in private collections, Paris and Florence.] 

1820 "Tatiana Borissovna Potemkina," oil on canvas, 41 3/4" x 31 7/8" (106 x 81 cm), signed and dated lower right: . . . Brun /1820. Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 317 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 229 (color). Tatyana Borisovna Golitsyna (1797-1869) was the daughter of Prince Boris Andreyevich Golitsyn and his wife, Anna Alexandrovna (whom VLB painted ca. 1797 as "Princess Bauris Galitzin"). In 1815, the sitter married Lieutenant-General Aleksandr Mikhailovich Potemkin, son of Mikhail Sergeyevich Potemkin and Tatyana Vasilievna Engelhardt (whom VLB painted 1797, in her second marriage, as Princess Yusupova).

1830 "Joséphine Mathilde Bernard de Sassenay, later Comtesse de Baussancourt," oil on panel, 28 3/4" x 23 3/8" (73 x 59.5 cm), signed and dated: L.E VIGEE LEBRUN 1830 (S.D.B.D.). Musée des Beaux-Arts, Troyes. Photo from Witt Library; Baillio (2015), p. 322 (color)  {"1 Mlle de Sassenay. Half-length."} Joséphine Mathilde Bernard de Sassenay (24 May 1811, Paris - 17 March 1900, Saint-Julien sur Seine (Aube)), a daughter of Claude Henri Étienne, marquis de Sassenay and Fortunée Prudence Claudine Breton des Chapelles. On 25 March 1829, the sitter had married comte Charles Marie Louis de Baussancourt (12 October 1797, Roanne - before 1900). The couple had two daughters: (1) Marie Valentine de Baussancourt, who on 27 September 1856 in Paris married Dieudonné Charles Saladin; and (2)  Clara Amélie de Baussancourt (7 August 1853 - 7 July 1916).

"Désiré-Raoul Rochette, " unlocated. {"1 M. Raoul-Rochette, half-length."} Lived 1790-1854. A historian and archaeologist, his marriage to a daughter of the sculptor, Houdon, brought him valuable contacts. He was active in the Restoration. For comparison, here’s a sketch by Heim, and another by Ingres. [Biographical information courtesy of Timothy F. Boettger.]

{"1 M. Sapey, half-length."}

"Mme Lafond". {"1 Mme Lafont."} [Referenced in Baillio (1982) as exhibited at the Salon of 1824.]

{"1 Mlle de Rivière."} Perhaps Léontine de Rivière (see below listing).

1831 "A woman (possibly Léontine de Rivière)," oil on canvas, 31 1/2" x 25 5/8" (80 x 65 cm). Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Baillio (2015), p. 323 (color). This painting has at times been identified as representing Léontine de Rivière (1813-95), a daughter of baron Auguste Louis Jean Baptiste de Rivière (2 November 1762, Paris - 20 January 1833, Paris) (Suzanne Vigée's eldest brother, who had accompanied VLB on her travels from 1792-1801) and his wife Antoinette Hélène Hébert-Golovina (1785-1848). Léontine's mother, born in Montpellier, was the child of comte Nicolaï Nicolaievitch Golovine and his mistress, Thérèse Hebert. Baillio (2015) states that Léontine was raised by her maternal grandfather's wife, Countess Varvara Nikolaevna Golovina, née Princess Golitzyna (Варвара Николаевна Головина, урожденная княжна Голицына) (1766-1819), whom VLB had painted in Russia, who had returned to France in 1814 following the Restoration--if so, it was only until age 6, as Varvara died in 1819. One Léontine Rivière married on 15 November 1842 in Paris to baron Alexander Kocken de Grünbladt, of St. Petersburg. However, this may have been a different Léontine Rivière, as Baillio (2015) cites Rivière family descendant and genealogist François-Emeric Cellérier that the daughter of VLB's traveling companion had married a Russian general named Boudaievsky or Bourdaevsky. If VLB indeed painted Léontine, she was probably the "Mlle de Rivière" listed above.

"Alfred de Rivière," unlocated. {"1 Alfred de Rivière."} Alfred de Rivière (1818-1893), a son of VLB's niece, Charlotte-Jeanne-Elisabeth-Louise Vigée, called "Caroline" (1791, Paris - 28 November 1864, Versailles (Yvelines)) and her husband, Jean Nicolas Louis de Rivière (27 August 1778, Paris - 13 April 1861, Versailles (Yvelines)).

1827 "Baron de Feisthamel," 35" x 28" (89 x 71 cm). Signed and dated lower right. {"1 The Baron de Feisthamel with both hands, painting."} J.-J. de Feisthamel. The painting was auctioned by Paris Drouot on June 14, 1985, for 320,000 francs. [Photo and information provided by Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Le Baron de Crespy le Prince, drawing."}

1832 "Mme Ditte," auctioned in Chinon, 13 November 2000 {"1 Mme Ditte."} Lucie Garnier, born 1793. Daughter of Pierre-Joseph Garnier and Angélique Lucie Hall (1774-1819). She married M. Charles-Honoré Ditte, Intendant militaire, fondateur de la Compagnie d’assurances "Le Phénix". VLB was a friend of the sitter’s grandparents, M. and Mme. Hall. [Identified and photo provided by Olivier Blanc.]

1836 "Caroline de Rivière" {"1 Mme de Rivière, my niece, with both hands showing."} Charlotte-Jeanne-Elisabeth-Louise, called "Caroline" (1791, Paris - 28 November 1864, Versailles (Yvelines)), was VLB’s niece, being the daughter of her brother, Etienne Vigée. In Paris on 17 April 1809, she married her mother's youngest brother, Jean Nicolas Louis de Rivière (27 August 1778, Paris - 13 April 1861, Versailles (Yvelines)). The couple had five children: (1) Léonie de Rivière (1809-97); (2) Léonce Georges de Rivière, baron de Rivière (1811-96); (3) Xaverine de Rivière (1815-52); (4) Alfred de Rivière (1818-93); and (5)Xaverine Louise Amélie de Rivière (1822-81). Per Baillio (2015), the sitter is portrayed waist-length, holding a small floral bouquet of flowers, and the painting remains with family descendants.

1812 "Caroline de Rivière," pastel, dated lower right: a Louveciennes, 21 xbre 1812. [Xbre = December.] VLB listed a painting of this sitter (above) "with both hands showing," which is known to date from 1836. She did not list this earlier pastel.  [Photo courtesy of Olivier Blanc.]

{"1 Self-portrait in profile for town of Saint Petersburg; it should be used to make a medallion, wherein might lie my own portrait alongside that of Angelica Kauffmann."}

1789-1820 "Mme Du Barry," Private Collection, Gazette des Beaux Arts, Nov 1980, p. 160 (b&w). {"The third portrait I made of Mme Dubarry … [was begun] towards the middle of September 1789... I had painted the head and traced the outline of the body and arm...My fear reached a peak and my only thought was to leave France, so I had to abandon the painting half finished. I do not know by what stroke of good fortune M. le Comte Louis de Narbonne found himself in possession of it during my absence; on my return to France, he gave it to me and I have only just completed it." - Letter X} A version by Eugénie Tripier Le Franc, VLBs niece, oil on canvas, is at Musée Lauibinet, Versailles.

1805-14? "The Queen’s apotheosis." {"1 The Queen’s apotheosis."} {"...I had another portrait of the Queen painted during Bonaparte’s reign. This one showed Marie-Antoinette ascending to heaven; on the left, seated on two clouds were Louis XVIII [sic, meaning Louis XVI] and two angels, an allusion to the two children he had lost." - Chap. XXXIV} Also known as "The Dream," the painting had been in the chapel of the Infirmerie Marie-Thérèse, rue Denfert-Rochereau, but vanished at some point in the 20th Century.

"Comtesse de Lostange" {Not listed or mentioned by VLB.} Per Angelica Goodden, in The Sweetness of Life, p. 296, a contemporary account by Brifaut lists this portrait as among the works done after VLB’s return to Paris.

1835-42 "Monsieur Poujoulat" {Not listed or mentioned by VLB.} Angelica Goodden, in The Sweetness of Life, p. 297, writes that VLB was past 80 when she painted the legitimist Poujoulat.

1805 "Laure de Bonneuil, Comtesse Régnault Saint Jean d´Angély," oil on panel, 45 5/8" x 33 7/8." Sotheby’s Catalog, London, 3-July-1996 (sold for $52,000). {Not listed or mentioned by VLB} Eléonore Françoise Augustine Guesnon de Bonneuil, nicknamed Laure de Bonneuil. Lived 1775-1857. She married the French statesman Michel Louis Etienne Régnault de Saint Jean d´Angély (1762-1819), who was the Conseiller d´Etat under the Consulat, Secretaire d´Etat to the Imperial family in 1810, and Ministre d´Etat under Napoleon in 1814. The sitter was the daughter of Mme Bonneuil, who was painted by VLB in 1773, and whom VLB had called the prettiest lady in Paris. [Olivier Blanc reports that in 1788, when Laure was 12, she was a guest at VLB’s famous Greek Supper, and that VLB prepared a drawing of Laure at that time.]

1808 "Countess Helena Apolonia Potocka," oil on wood, originally 32 1/4” x 26 3/8” (82 x 67 cm), though one of the panels is lost, and now the painting is only 32 1/4” x 18” (82 x 45.7 cm); signed and dated at right: E. Vigee / Le Brun 1808. National Museum, Warsaw. Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 132 (b&w) & p. 133 (color). The painting, which was purchased by the museum in 1925, was restored in 2009. The color photograph is courtesy of the museum and the curator, Dr. Elżbieta Pilecka-Pietrusińska. Thanks also to Julia Slupska for corresponding with the museum and forwarding the image to us. A 1938 photo shows the painting before the panel to the left was lost. Princess Helena Apolonia Massalska (9 Feb 1763-15 Oct 1815) was a daughter of Józef Adrian Massalski (1726-6 June 1765, Warsaw) and Antonina Radziwiłł (18 August 1730, Chernavchitsy, Belarus - 1764). On 22 July 1779, the sitter married Prince Charles de Ligne (c.1758-1792). Her second husband (she was his third wife) was Wincenty Gawel Potocki (born 1749). [Identified by Angela Demutskiy.]

1809 "Mdm Hennet," oil on canvas, 29" x 23 3/8," signed and dated lower left: L E Vigee/ Le Brun/ 1809. Private collection. {Not listed or mentioned by VLB}The sitter may belong to the Hennet de Goutel family, which counted the painters Ingres and Chasseriau among its intimates. Offered by Bonhams auction house, 7 July 2010.

ca. 1835 "Mdm Baudin," Bayrische Staatsammlungen, Munich. {Image located by Jana Talkenberg.}

1811 "Head of a Woman," pastel, 17 5/8" x 14 1/4," signed and dated lower right: E.V. Le Brun /1811. Private. Baillio (1982), p. 127 (b&w); color image provided by Mercè and Jordi Alabern, finding it published prior to the work’s 1998 sale. See the Baillio (1982) description.

After 1813 "Jacques Delille," pastel, musée de Blois. {From Memory: "1 L’Abbé Delille."} {"...the dear Abbé Delille came very often to Malmaison..." - Letter XI} Jacques Delille, 1738-1813. Image courtesy of Olivier Blanc.

1811 "Flora?," Oil on canvas, oval, 72 x 50 cm, signed and dated: Mde Lebrun. f.1811. National Museum, Stockholm. Donated by Ernst Davidsson in 1919. Museum postcard.

1817 "Portrait of a Young Boy," oil on canvas, 21 3/4" x 18 1/4" (55.2 x 46.45 cm), signed and dated on the rifle stock: Vigée Le Brun 1817. National Museum of Women in the Arts, Washington, D.C. Museum postcard; Baillio (2015), p. 314 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 227 (color).

1819 "Portrait of a Woman," oil on canvas, 24" x 20" (61 x 51 cm), signed and dated lower right: L. E. Vigée / Le Brun / 1819. Private collection, New York. Baillio (1982), p. 128 (b&w); Baillio (2015), p. 316 (color). See the Baillio (1982) description.

1821 "Saint Geneviève," oil on canvas, 59 1/2" x 42 1/8" (151 x 107 cm), Musée promenade de Marly-le-Roi, Louveciennes. Published in article by A. Vuaflart, "La tombe de Madame Vigée-Lebrun à Louveciennes," Paris, Societé de l’histoire de Paris, 1915; Baillio (2015), p. 74 (color). {"Since the peace of my country seemed assured, I no longer thought of leaving it... I so loved Louveciennes that wanting to leave the place a souvenir of my own, I painted Saint Geneviève for the chapel." - Chap. XXXIV} Angelica Goodden, in The Sweetness of Life, p. 311, says the face has the features of Jule Le Brun at age 14, and thinks the painting was a commemoration following Julie’s death in December 1819. Goodden writes that this is the artist’s only known composition with a religious theme.

1820? {On the way to Bordeaux: Tours, France: "Standing beneath the portal of the second entrance to the Marmoutier monastery I drew one of its towers..." - Chap. XXXV}

{"I was very glad I had undertaken this substantial journey [to Bordeaux], all the more so because, thanks to my love of ruins, I brought back a portfolio full of the drawings done en route." - Chap. XXXV}

SWITZERLAND (Two trips: 1807 & 1808)

1807 "Thoune Lake," drawing, 8.1 x11 in (20.5x28cm), signed and dated 1808. Possibly in museum in Chamonix? {"On leaving Berne I continued on to Thun..." - Switzerland Letter II} The lake, in Bernese Oberland, is one of the largest in Switzerland, with 48 square kilometers of surface, and a depth up to 217 meters.

1808 "Thoune Lake," pastel, 18.5 x. 23 cm. Sold by Emmanuel Farrando & Guillaume Lemonie, 9 March 2005, lot 47, $22,000.

{At Schaffhausen, Switzerland: "I then went to look at the [Rhine] falls from the base … and I painted both views." - Switzerland Letter II}

{"The area around Vevey … I went to Clarence at sunrise; leaning on the ruins of Jean-Jacque [Rousseau’s] chalet, I painted the ruins..." - Switzerland Letter V}

{"...I saw a superb rainbow which formed a perfect arc over Vevey; the village was so well lit that the clocktower and the houses were as plain as day … I painted this view from nature" - Switzerland Letter V}

1808-09 "Mme de Staël as Corinne," oil on canvas, 55 1/8" x 46 1/2" (140 x 118 cm), Musée d’Art et d’Histoire, Geneva. Museum postcard; Pacific Art, 3:14, 1944; Cleveland Museum of Art Bulletin, 66:249, Sep 1979; La Revue du Louvre, 30:2:79, 1980; The Exceptional Woman by Mary D. Sheriff; The Sweetness of Life (color); Baillio (2015), p. 307 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 220 (color); Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 68 (color). {"Mme de Staël[‘s] … sparkling and inspired personality gave me the idea of painting her as Corinne, seated on a rock, holding her lyre and dressed in the costume of ancient Greece." - Switzerland Letter VI} Baronne Anne Louise Germaine Necker de Staël-Holstein (22 April 1766 – 14 July 1817), French-Swiss writer. She was the daughter of the Swiss banker, Jacques Necker (30 September 1732 – 9 April 1804), French finance minister 1777-81 and 1788-90, and his wife Suzanne Curchod  (1737 – 6 May 1794). The sitter's first husband was Swedish  attaché Baron Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein, (25 October 1749, Loddby, Sweden – 9 May 1802, Poligny, Jura). In 1811, she married her second husband, Albert Jean Michel de Rocca (1788 – 31 January 1818).

ca. 1807-08 "Le Mont-Blanc," pastel, Chambéry, Musée Savoisien, Gazette des Beaus Arts, Mar 1978, supp. 11 (b&w); La Revue du Louvre, 29:5-6:400, 1979 (b&w); The Sweetness of Life (color). {Chamonix: "...the contrast threw Mount Blanc into relief - not that it needed highlighting, but the sharp focus completed the picture. I was seized with a desire to paint this reflected light; quickly, I snatched up my pastels, but alas! it was impossible; no palette, no colour could capture this radiance..." - Switzerland Letter VII}

1808 "Lake Challes at Mount Blanc," pastel on blue-green wove paper, two sheets joined, 9 x 13 3/8" (22.7 x 33.8 cm). Signature and title (on sheet of paper attached to back, in brown ink), at bottom right (?): L.E. Vigée Lebrun, and at bottom left (?): vue du lac de challes au mont Blanc. Minneapolis Institute of Art. Baillio (2015), p. 27 (color).

1808 {Chamonix: "I settled down to paint the Glacier [des Bossons]..."; "I stopped yet again to paint a mountain peak with a torrent of water rushing down its side"; "then seeing a superb mass of trees on the low ground, I was keen to put that onto paper at once"; "During my prolonged stay in Chamonix, I painted the whole line of mountains interspersed with glaciers; I also painted the complete length of the valley." - Switzerland Letter VII}

1809 {The scene of the landslide at Goldau: "...I started to settle into painting the scene of the disaster..." - Switzerland Letter VIII}

1808-09 "Das Alphirtenfest in Unspunnen," oil on canvas, 33 1/8" x 44 7/8" (84 x 114 cm), Kunstmuseum, Bern. The Sweetness of Life (b&w); museum postcard (color); Baillio (2015), p. 309 (color); Baillio (2016), p. 223 (color). {Festival of Shepherds celebrated at Untersee [celebrated every 100 years]: "After the Festival … I settled down in the field to paint the scene with all the people in it. The Comte de Grammont held my box of pastels. I eventually painted it in oils." - Footnote 4, Switzerland Letter IX} VLB is seen in the foreground, sketching on her knee, with the comte de Grammont beside her.

[VLB also sketched the lakes of Brienz, Zug and Bienne, and the famous Goldau waterfall, according to a manuscript note in the Tripier Le Franc papers.]

MISCELLANEOUS PAINTINGS CITED BY VLB [Most are undated, I may move them into chronological order later as more research comes in.]

1777 "Spanish Concert," oil on canvas, 32 1/4" x 39 3/4" (82 x 101 cm), Private collection. {"1 Spanish scene."} Baillio (2015), p. 122 (color). A letter dated May 24, 1776 from Joseph Vernet to Pachelbel mentioned that VLB was working on this portrait as a commission from the late Christian IV, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld (6 September 1722, Bischweiler  – 5 November 1775, Herschweiler-Pettersheim), Duke of Zweibrücken from 1735 to 1775. VLB would not complete and sign the work until 1777. VLB's husband served as a model for the man in the painting, and it is quite possible that she modeled the woman after herself.

1789 {"1 Love asleep in a rose grove with two nymphs looking on."} This was painted for Princess Helen Radizwill in 1789 (Paris). For half a century, the painting was in the Palais de Nieborów.

{"1 Young girl, surprised in her shift, hides her breast."}

{"1 Young girl surprised while writing."}

Vicomtesse de Suffren,” 35 1/2” x 28”. Published by Helm who describes: “Seated, three-quarters to left. 1/2 - length. Low-necked dress of white muslin, with waistband of blue ribbon. Powdered hair, with roses. Black scarf over right arm, bouquet in left hand.” Purchased by E. M. Hodgkins, Esq., in the Kramer sale, 5 May 1913, 22,000 fr. {From Memory: "1 Mme de Suffrein."} Born Louise Pulchérie de Guesbriant. She married Jean Baptiste de Suffren de Saint Tropez. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

{From Memory: "1 The Comtesse de Las Cases."}

{"1 Shipwrecked woman."}

{"1 Cataract of Narva."} {On the way to Berlin, 1801: "... I went to see a magnificent cataract which lay at some distance from the town. ...several of the inhabitants of Narva [Estonia] who were watching me sketch told me of a tragic event... " - Chap. XXVI; VLB apparently later used the sketch to prepare a painting.]

{"1 An old man and his grandson; fiery glow."}

RiverWindingValley.jpg - 1820-1830 "Landscape with a river winding valley," pastel on blue paper, 5 1/2" x 6 3/8" (14 x 16.3 cm). Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 325 (color). {"As well as these there are about a hundred pastel landscapes of Switzerland painted during my travels."} {"In the account of my two trips to Switzerland, I have not really told you how many pastel landscapes I painted from nature; I completed roughly two hundred of them" - Footnote 4, Switzerland Letter IX}.

Belfry.jpg - 1820-1830 "Landscape with belfry," pastel on beige paper, 5 3/8" x 6 1/2" (13.8 x 16.4 cm).
Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 325 (color). {"As well as these there are about a hundred pastel landscapes of Switzerland painted during my travels."} {"In the account of my two trips to Switzerland, I have not really told you how many pastel landscapes I painted from nature; I completed roughly two hundred of them" - Footnote 4, Switzerland Letter IX}.

TreeRiverbank.jpg - 1820-1830 "Landscape with a tree on the banks of a river," cream pastel on paper, 5 1/2" x 6 3/8" (14 x 16.5 cm)
. Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 325 (color). {"As well as these there are about a hundred pastel landscapes of Switzerland painted during my travels."} {"In the account of my two trips to Switzerland, I have not really told you how many pastel landscapes I painted from nature; I completed roughly two hundred of them" - Footnote 4, Switzerland Letter IX}.

Bushes.jpg - 1820-1830 "Landscape with bushes," pastel on blue paper, 5 5/8" x 6 1/2" (14.4 x 16.7 cm)
. Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 325 (color). {"As well as these there are about a hundred pastel landscapes of Switzerland painted during my travels."} {"In the account of my two trips to Switzerland, I have not really told you how many pastel landscapes I painted from nature; I completed roughly two hundred of them" - Footnote 4, Switzerland Letter IX}.

SkyStudy.jpg -  1821 "Sky Study," pastel on paper, 6 1/8" x 8 3/8" (15.5 x 21.2 cm
). Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 326 (color). {"As well as these there are about a hundred pastel landscapes of Switzerland painted during my travels."} {"In the account of my two trips to Switzerland, I have not really told you how many pastel landscapes I painted from nature; I completed roughly two hundred of them" - Footnote 4, Switzerland Letter IX}.

ArdennesChurchMohon.jpg - 1826 "Landscape of the Ardennes with the church of Mohon," pastel on paper, 5 7/8" x 7" (15 x 18 cm)
. Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 326 (color). {"As well as these there are about a hundred pastel landscapes of Switzerland painted during my travels."} {"In the account of my two trips to Switzerland, I have not really told you how many pastel landscapes I painted from nature; I completed roughly two hundred of them" - Footnote 4, Switzerland Letter IX}.

SkyStudyTree.jpg - 1826 "Study sky with a tree in the Meuse valley (?)," pastel on paper, 7" x 8 1/8" (17.6 x 20.8 cm)
. Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 327 (color). {"As well as these there are about a hundred pastel landscapes of Switzerland painted during my travels."} {"In the account of my two trips to Switzerland, I have not really told you how many pastel landscapes I painted from nature; I completed roughly two hundred of them" - Footnote 4, Switzerland Letter IX}.

MeuseValley.jpg - 1826 "Meuse valley with a village and characters," pastel on paper, 5 7/8" x 7" (15 x 18 cm
). Private collection. Baillio (2015), p. 327 (color). {"As well as these there are about a hundred pastel landscapes of Switzerland painted during my travels."} {"In the account of my two trips to Switzerland, I have not really told you how many pastel landscapes I painted from nature; I completed roughly two hundred of them" - Footnote 4, Switzerland Letter IX}.

MISCELLANEOUS ENTRIES  [Many of these images are unresearched and are of questionable attribution. Others seem to be legitimate works by VLB, but are undated, and have not yet been placed.]

"Madame de Coustard de Villiers," oil on canvas, oval, 35" x 27 1/2." The dress style dates from 1780-89.

"Woman sitting and knitting," black and red chalk on paper, (21.6 x 15.8 cm). Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Referenced in Baillio (2015), p. 209.

"Woman sitting and embroidering," formerly Destailleur collection, sold in Paris on 7-8 June 1901. Referenced in Baillio (2015), p. 209.

1813 "Woman," oil on canvas, 23 1/2" x 24 1/8" (59.7 x 48.2 cm), signed: L. E. Vigée / Le Brun / 1813. David-Weill collection.

1813 "Man," oil on canvas, 23 1/2" x 24 1/8" (59.7 x 48.2 cm), signed: L. E. Vigée / Le Brun / 1813. David-Weill collection.

"Young girl," oil on canvas, 13 3/8" x 11 5/8", Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts. Elena Sharnova, associate professor, University of Human Sciences, Moscow, and the former curator of French Paintings in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, informed us that the painting is located at the Pushkin. She reports doubts about the attribution, indicating that x-rays suggested the portrait dated from the middle of the 19th century, and suggests that it may be a copy after a lost original. The sitter was at one point considered to be Julie Le Brun, but the sitter's dark brown eyes do not match Julie's lighter eye color.

ca. 1775 "Madame de Livry," pastel, oval, Bernay Musée Municipal, France. Neil Jeffares Dictionary of Pastellists before 1800.

"Marie Eugenie Rouillé-Ducoudreux," oil on canvas. Marie Eugenie Rouillé-Ducoudreux was married to Michael Felix, comte de Choiseul-Daillecourt (1759-1815). The portrait was sold on September 18, 2009, at the Hampel Fine Arts Auction, Munich, Germany.

1795-1801 "The Dancer," Starye Gody, Oct 1907. Listed as the painting named "La danseuse" (The dancer). At the time it was in the collection of Ivan Alexandrovich Vsevolojskoy (1835-1909), the Director of the Imperial Theatres in Russia from 1881 to 1898 and director of the Hermitage from 1899 to his death in 1909.

"Young woman," Ingestre Hall Residential Arts Centre, Loire Valley, France.

"Mme Tripier Le Franc," drawing, Brooklyn Museum, New York. Eugénie Tripier Le Franc, née Le Brun, VLBs niece. "Mme Tripier Le France," this image was found in the Witt Library. Eugénie Tripier Le Franc, née Le Brun, VLBs niece.

1802 "Michel," oil on canvas, 18" x 14 3/4" (45.7 x 37.5 cm), Dallas Museum of Art. Jana Talkenberg provided this image on 4 Sept 2013.

"Young Girl," drawing, Musee Fabre Montpellier, Languedoc, South France. (Image provided by Angela Demutskiy.)

"Jean-Jacques Bachelier," de l'Academie Royale de Peinture, pastel, 12 x 15.5" (30.5 x 38.5 cm). Not listed by VLB. (Image provided by Angela Demutskiy).

"Young Poet Reading," black pencil, brown and grey wash, 9 3/8" x 7 1/8" (23.7 x 18.2 cm).

Olivier Blanc has provided an engraving with the legend: "Carle Vernet", par Mme Vigée Lebrun / Gravure de M. Romagnol, collection de M. Antonin Proust / (Paris Bibliothèque nationale of France). The painting was sold as Circle of Henri-Pierre Danloux, “Portrait of a Young Man,” oil on canvas, 25.6” x 21.5”, by Loudmer Scp., 15 December 1992, lot 53, $1,507. If the engraving properly identifies the artist and sitter, then whoever bought the painting in 1992 received a bargain. However, it does not look like VLB’s style, and the attribution to Danloux or his circle may be more accurate. Antoine Charles Horace Vernet, lived 1758-1836.

"Madame Sicardi," head and shoulders, robed as a vestal virgin, her eyes looking upwards. This painting was listed by Helm as having been sold in the Constantin sale, 1816.

1799-1805 "A lady," pastel on paper, 11 7/8" x 15 3/4" (30 x 40 cm), private collection, Switzerland. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). The owner was kind enough to contact us and provide the high-quality photographs.

"Iris," Photo from Witt Library.

1778-1837 “Grafinia Sofia Adamovna Zamoiskaia,” published in Michailovich’s Les Portraits Russes. This is said to be a painting by Lampi, though Angela Demutskiy suggests that it could be a work by VLB. Claudia Solacini thinks the portrait represents Psyche, as it includes butterfly wings and the candle which Psyche uses to see her lover, Cupid.

Honore Francois Marie Langle,” oil on canvas, Monaco National Art Museum. Honore Francoise Marie Langle, (1741-1807), born in Monaco, he moved to Paris in 1768 and achieved success as a composer and educator. [A number of us believe the attribution to VLB is erroneous, based upon the pose, the presentation of the face and clothing, the fact that VLB did not list painting this sitter, etc.]

"Ship Owner's Wife," pastel, signed; La maison de l'armateur, Le Havre, France.

La comtesse de Bouzey, pastel. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006).

Mme de La Briche, née Marie Le Maistre, pastel. (1755–1844). Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006).

La marquise de Noailles, née Pauline-Laurette Le Couteulx du Molay (1776–1802). Pastel. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006).

Gräfin von Rumbeke, née Anne Charlotte Alexandrine von Cobenzl (1755–1812). Pastel. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006).

Antoinette Savalette de Magnanville, pastel. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006).

Mlle Schoen, pastel. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006).

Jean-François Thomas de Thomon (1754–1813), architecte du prince Esterházy. Pastel. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006).

Gräfin von Thun, née Marie Wilhelmine Gräfin von Uhlfeld (1744–1800). Pastel. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006).

Sketchbook, Image 1 (image provided by Olivier Blanc). Elana Sharnova identifies the female figure in the upper right as after a portrait of Christina of Sweden by Sébastien Bourdon. Elana believes that the sketch was not made directly from the painting, but from the engraving by Robert Nanteuil (1654).

Sketchbook, Image 2 (image provided by Olivier Blanc)

Sketchbook, Image 3 (image provided by Olivier Blanc)

Sketchbook, Image 4 (image provided by Olivier Blanc). Elena Sharnova was kind enough to identify this figure as having been copied from the bottom center of Raphael’s "Transfiguration." The painting resided at the church of San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, until 1797, when French troops seized it and carried it to Paris. After 1815, the painting was brought to the Vatican, where it remains. A mosaic copy of the painting was installed in St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican City in 1767.

Sketchbook, Image 5 (image provided by Olivier Blanc)

Girl, oil on canvas (image provided by Jana Talkenberg).

Young Woman, 59 x 47 cm, drawn on beige paper, Louvre.

"Comtesse de Rougé," Mlle Marie-Joseph Robert de Lignerac, who married count Pierre Olivier de Rougé. This sitter is not listed by VLB.

"Unidentified lady," provided by Olivier Blanc. Allegedly a self-portrait, but we don’t see any resemblance to VLB.

"Mdm Coindre," discovered by Olivier Blanc on a website, where the sitter is called Madame Serbat’s Great-Great-Great Grandmother. No additional information is available at this time.

"Prince Friedrich Alfred von Schönburg," collection of the Museum of castle Hinterglauchau, Saxony. Wolf-Dieter Röber, Schönburgische Burgen und Schlösser im Tal der Zwickauer Mulde, Beucha: Sax-Verlag, 1999. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006). Friedrich Alfred Fürst von Schönburg-Hartenstein; lived 1786-1840.

"Young Woman Playing a Lyre," oil on canvas, 35" x 28 1/2", Cincinnati Art Museum. Cincinnati Art Museum bulletin ns 4:ii Feb 1949. Color image found on Internet by Angela Demutskiy. [At one time identified as Countess Sophie von Fries, but we now know that painting is a different one.]

Young Woman, pastel, oval, 55.5 x 46.5 cm. Attributed to VLB. Auctioned at Hotel Drouot, Paris.

c. 1780 "Countess Valois de Valmar," oil on canvas, 29 1/2" x 23 1/2." Photo from Witt Library. [Not listed or mentioned by VLB.] Jeanne de Saint-Rémy [22 July 1756-?] and her brother were recognized by the king and queen, and given the name and title of "Valois," from the extinct line of baron de Valois, a bastard of Henri II. She married Count de La Motte, and later became mistress to Cardinal Louis René Édouard de Rohan. She and the cardinal were behind the Necklace Affair that embarrassed Marie Antoinette in 1785, so VLB may have intentionally her off the list of paintings. Compare to this engraving of Comtesse de La Motte. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

"Louis Charles, later Louis XVII," oil on canvas. Attributed to VLB. Lived 1785-1795.

"Madame Poujault de Montjourdain," Antiquarian, 15:47, Dec 1930. Sold to Vokins, 7/8/1882.

"Little German Girl," oil on canvas, 33 1/2" x 26 3/8." Photo from Witt Library.

"Girl with a Cat," oil on canvas. Photo from Witt Library.

"Portrait of a Woman," oval, Art Quarterly, Autumn 1960, p. 322 (b&w). (Olivier Blanc thinks this may be a portrait by Voille.)

"Portrait Head of a Youth," oil on canvas, 18" x 13." Apollo, Apr 1975, p. 55; Country Life, 157:supp 55, 10 Apr 1975

ca. 1789-1792 "Comtesse Narbonne Lara," Black chalk and stump heightened with red and white chalk on beige paper, 17 1/4" x 14." Photo from Witt Library. Marie Adelaide de Montholon, 1767-1848 daughter of Nicolas de Montholon and Marguerite Fournier de la Chapelle. The sitter was married in 1782 to Louis Marie Jacques Amalric, Comte de Narbonne-Lara (1753-1813), the illegitimate son of Louis XV and Françoise de Chalus, De Narbonne-Lara. Their daughter, Louise Amable Rion Françoise, was the Dame d’honneur of the Queen of Portugal. [Information and dates per Angela.] Auctioned 19-June-1990.

"Bacchus and Ariadne," Connoisseur, Nov 1969. [Not listed or mentioned by VLB .]

1787? "Young Child Reading," oil on canvas. Photo from Witt Library.

"Countess Esterhazy-Plettenberg," oil on canvas, 27 1/2" x 23 5/8," Oval, Budapest. {Not listed or mentioned by VLB}

"Portrait du Dauphin de France,"[*]; oil on canvas, oval, 22 7/8" x 18 1/8." Apollo, 90:cxxxii, Sep 1969, hopefully attributed by owner although signed: G. Amaury.

Marie Antoinette, drawing. Angela believes this to be a 19th century print. It’s harder to determine what the original was. She thinks the dress is the same as from the 1785 portrait, while I think the head looks more like VLB’s copy of Wertmuller’s.

1795-1801? "Self Portrait (wearing turban)," oil on canvas, 60 x 45 cm. White blouse, blue scarf on the shoulder. Llisted in the George Petit auction catalogue for December 10-11, 1928, as having belonged to the Ribes-Christofle collection.

1791 "Portrait of a Lady," oil on canvas, 25" x 20." Sold by Christies on 8/7/1977, lot 79, for £6500.

"Countess Savorgnan di Brazza," oil on canvas, 35" x 28 1/2."

"Young girl," oil on canvas, oval, 20 7/8" x 20 1/2."

"A lady," oil on canvas, oil. Photo from Witt Library.

"Lord Rosebery, Dalmeny," oil on canvas, 24 1/2" x 18." Photo from Witt Library.

"King Louis XVI," photo from Witt Library. VLB didn’t list or mention painting the King, and it seems unlikely that she would have neglected to mention such a thing.

"Allegory of Night," oil on canvas, oil. Photo from Witt Library.

"Marquis de Prouville with wife and child," oil on canvas, 44 1/2" x 33 1/2." Photo from Witt Library. Bergeret de Prouville, friend of Fragonard, Vincent, and other artists. [Identified by Olivier Blanc.]

"Mme Louis Rene Adrien Dugas," oil on canvas, 29 1/2" x 32 1/2." Photo from Witt Library.

"The Artist’s Mother?," oil on canvas, 28 3/4" x 23 5/8." Photo from Witt Library.

"A lady,"

"Woman with pigeons," oil on canvas, 32" x 26." Photo from Witt Library.

"A lady," oil on canvas, oval, 28 3/4" x 23." Photo from Witt Library.

"Lady with dove," oil on canvas, 24 3/4" x 19."

"A lady," oil on canvas, 54 1/2" x 34."

1791 "A lady," oil on canvas, 25" x 20".

"A girl," black and white chalk and Indian-ink wash on grey paper, oval, 23 1/4" x 15 1/2", Musée du Louvre, Paris. Image from Louvre website..

1777 "A woman," oil on canvas, oval, 24" x 20". Photo from Witt Library.

Young girl with book. Image from Witt Library.

A Lady, pastel on paper, image from Witt Library

Young Girl, oil on canvas, 19" x 16 1/2".

Allegory, chalk -- perhaps this is a sketch of a sculpture.

A woman, oil on canvas.

A child, color crayons, 13 3/4" x 9 5/8". Attributed.

A child, oil on canvas, oval.

A girl, pastel, 14 1/8" x 11 3/4"

A lady, pastel, 17 3/8" x 13 3/4"

A woman, color crayons, 8 5/8" x 9 7/8".

A lady, drawing, 4 1/2" x 3 1/2".

A Russian artist, chalk and grey wash.

A lady, reading, oil on canvas, 50" x 36 1/2"

1782 A girl, oil on canvas, 29.5 x 24 cm

"Girl with a white cap," pastel, oval, 17 1/2" x 14."

Woman. [Image from Olivier Blanc.]

ca. 1788 "The Dauphin and his governess," oil on canvas. Photo provided by the owner, located in Cádiz, Spain. Louis Charles, later Louis XVII, 1785-1795. The governess was Louise Elizabeth Felicité, Duchess of Tourzel, 1749-1832. [Joseph Baillio does not believe this painting is by VLB.]

"Jean-François Ducis," unlocated. [The catalogue for the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s 1998 exhibition, "Augustin Pajou, Royal Sculptor: 1730-1809," by James David Draper and Guilhem Scherf, states "Vigée-Le Brun painted Grétry, Ducis, Sedaine’s daughter, and Hubert Robert..."] Poet, lived 1733-1816.

"Sedaine’s daughter?," unlocated. [The catalogue for the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s 1998 exhibition, "Augustin Pajou, Royal Sculptor: 1730-1809," by James David Draper and Guilhem Scherf, states "Vigée-Le Brun painted Grétry, Ducis, Sedaine’s daughter, and Hubert Robert..."] Michel Jean Sedaine (1719-1797), dramatist. Who was his daughter?

"Boutin," unlocated. [Angelica Goodden, in The Sweetness of Life, p. 295, cites Madame Viginie Ancelot who reported (circa 1830) that VLB had in her drawing room a portrait she had prepared of Boutin, who had died in the Revolution.]

Mlle Dangeville or d’Angeville (real name Marie-Anne Botot, 1716-1796). An actress of the Comédie française, apparently painted by VLB in her role in Dancourt’s play "les trois cousines." A pastel after VLB, owned by Comédie française, was exhibited in 1885. [Information courtesy of Olivier Blanc.]

Miniature of Henri de La Tour d’Auvergne,vicomte de Turenne, Maréchal de France (1611-75). Prince Henry of Prussia, brother of Frederick the Great, by Chester V. Easum (Madison, The University of Wisconsin press, 1942), says that Prince Henry admired the French Marshall Turenne´s portrait, and that VLB made a miniature copy of it for a snuff-box and gave it to him as a present. However, VLB doesn’t mention having painted miniatures, so the story, if true, might mean that she had someone else make the miniature. [Information from Jana Talkenberg.]

"Young Dauphin Returning from the Hunt," Honolulu Academy of Arts Bulletin, 4:66, Dec. 1936 [C.S. Stein sent an e-mail to Honolulu Academy of Arts on 14 Feb. 1998, asking for information, but was not acknowledged with a response. Followed-up on 17 March with snail-mail; also ignored.]

"Marquise de Jaffray," American Art News, 3:5, March 25, 1905

"Venus und Amor," Weltkunet, 14:3, Apr. 14, 1940

"Unknown child," signed and dated; formerly collection of Irma N. Straus; Parke-Bernet catalogue, 10/22/70, lot 16.

1799 "Madame Natalia Nakharovna," oil on canvas, 31" x 26," Sold by Sotheby’s 1/1990 for $198,000

"Madame de Maintenon," sold 7/18/1882 by Christie, London to Vokins, £.105

"Monsieur Bachelier, de l’Académie Royale de Peinture", pastel, 15" x 13". Auctioned 31-March-1993.

1812 "Colonel Bibikov," miniature, 2 3/4" diam, signed E. Vigée-Lebrun. Sold Paris 1919. Photo from Witt Library. VLB is not known to have painted any miniatures, so this is a strange attribution.

"Louise Marie Adélaïde de Penthièvre, Duchess d’Orléans," pastel, 28" x 22 7/8". Auctioned 14-March-1998.

DETERMINED NOT TO BE BY VIGÉE LE BRUN (And not already mentioned in the main list as an anonymous copy of an authentic VLB portrait).

1796? "Grand Duchess Elisaveta Alexeevna, later Empress of Russia, consort of Alexander I," Museum of History of Architecture and Art, Pskov, Russia. St. Petersburg um 1800 : ein goldenes Zeitalter des russischen Zarenreichs : Meisterwerke und authentische Zeugnisse der Zeit aus der Staatlichen Ermitage, Leningrad / Kulturstiftung Ruhr Essen; [Obersetzung der Texte aus dem Russischen, Nikolaus Thon]. Recklinghausen : Bongers, c1990. This is a painting by Salvatore Tonci (1756-1844).

"Comte de Provence," by Duplessis

1773 "Comte de Provence," oil on canvas, 79 x 62 cm. Grand Cabinet du Capitaine des Gardes, château Versailles. This painting is by Jean-Martial Frédou (1710-95).

ca. 1820 "Duchesse de Berry," published in André Blum, Madame Vigée-Lebrun peintre des grandes dames du XVIIIe siécle, 1919. However, it does not appear to be VLB's style, and she only listed two paintings of this sitter, both of which are accounted for. This painting appears now to be the work of Flemish painter François Joseph Kinsoen (1771-1839).

1788-90 "Portrait of a girl," oval. Francesc Cambó collection, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya, Barcelona. Illustrated in color in the Catalogue of the Cambó Collection. The museum attributes this to VLB based on the opinion of Sánchez Cantón; however, Baillio doesn’t believe this is by VLB, and neither does Lucia Cardellini.

"Woman with an Organdy Cap," Cognaq-Jay Museum, Paris. This painting is now considered to be the work of Antoine Vestier.

ca. 1788 "Marie Antoinette," oil on canvas, location unknown. Angela Demutskiy wrote that this painting had been in the possession of the Countess Biron in 1931. Angela had noted that this painting was nearly identical to a painting of Marie-Antoinette in hunting costume in Versailles, except that in this painting the queen was wearing a dressing gown. The portrait in hunting costume has been identified as being by Wertmuller, and was dated 1788. Catherine Northeast/Todd notes that there are many other variants, dated as early as 1784. For example, see the variant reproduced by Lenotre. VLB's memoirs indicate that at the beginning of her career, 1776-77, she prepared a few copies of portraits of the queen by other artists. However, this line of paintings all seem to be dated later, when VLB was already a respected artist and unlikely to be copying the work of others. Also, there does not appear to be any particular evidence connecting this painting to VLB.

ca. 1793 "Portrait of a young girl," 15" x 18." Formerly owned by North Carolina Museum of Art. Art Quarterly, 27:3:384, 1964 (b&w). Thanks to Angela Demutskiy for locating a color image. Jana Talkenberg reported that Christie´s sold the painting at New York on 26 January 2012 as a painting by Antoine Vestier.

"A lady," pastel, 24 3/4" x 19 5/8." Photo from Witt Library. Color photo from www.auktionsverket.se; listed for auction 30 November 2006. Neil Jeffares, Dictionary of Pastellists Before 1800 (Unicorn Press 2006), page 273, col. C, photograph i, attributed the work to Labille-Guiard on the basis of an old photograph (which had attributed the work to VLB). Having later received a color photograph from the Swedish collector who had purchased the pastel, Jeffares revised his opinion in June 2010 and now considers the pastel a pastiche (likely late 19th Century) of two paintings. “The first is Labille-Guiard’s painting of the marquise de Coutances (more properly comtesse de Barruel-Beauvert, née Anne-Blanche-Victoire Cauchon de Maurepas (1733–1799), pnt., c.1787 (Gustav Mühlbacher; Paris, Georges Petit, 13–15.v.1907, Lot 32; no. 93 in Mme Passez’s monograph on Labille-Guiard); the pasticheur has derived the headdress from this source. The second source is Mme Vallayer-Coster’s portrait (in oil) of Madame Victoire (MV 3807, no. 60 in the 2002/03 Vallayer-Coster exhibition catalogue), from which the pasticheur has derived the lower costume. There is a pastel copy of the Vallayer-Coster which may be contemporary (again I have only seen an old, poor photo; http://www.pastellists.com/Articles/VALLAYER.pdf page 1, col. B, photo ii) but suspiciously it bears the initials “JBP”, leading to its appearance in a sale in Paris, Drouot, 3–4.iii.1905, Lot 95 repr., as by Perronneau.” Thanks to Charles Vatinel for providing us with this information.

1808 “Queen of Naples. VLB did paint Caroline Murat, but this portrait of the sitter is by François Pascal Simon Gérard. [Thanks to Angela Demutskiy for the information.]

1772-76 “Portrait of a Gentleman,” VLB Souvenirs 1755 -1842, Texte établi, présenté et annoté par Geneviève Haroche-Bouzinac (2008 Éditions Champion, Paris). This is a signed and dated portrait by Greuze of the Duc de Choiseul Praslin; it was auctioned as such in 2004. [Thanks to Jana Talkenberg for sending this image to us, and to Angela Demutskiy for correcting the attribution.]

"Ceres Begging for Jupiter's Thunderbolt after the Kidnapping of Her Daughter Prosperine," Museum of Fine Art, Boston. In the 1930s, this had been misattributed to VLB by Galerie Fievez, Brussels. The painting is now known to be the work of Antoine-François Callet. Thanks to Angela Demutskiy for the update.

1789 "Dauphin Louis Charles," graphite and red chalk, 3 1/2" x 6". Formerly attributed to VLB, as of Sotheby's 4 July 2007 auction catalogue, the sketch is now attributed to Augustin de Sain-Aubin. Thanks to Angela Demutskiy for the update.

A Lady,” oil on canvas, oval, 28 3/4" x 23 1/2." The painting was exhibited at the Ehrich Galleries, New York, in Jan 1915, where the sitter was identified as Countess Kinsky. [Here is a black and white image of the framed painting.] However, as Angela Demutskiy points out, Kinsky had dark brown eyes, so she could not have been the sitter for this portrait of a fair skinned lady with blue eyes. (Helm described the painting: white cap and dress, light blue sash; fair with blue eyes.) More recently, the painting was auctioned as “circle Vigee LeBrun.”

"Countess Sophie (or Helena Apolonia?) Potocka," pastel. The Witt Library had believed this was a VLB, probably destroyed in Germany during World War II. However, the pastel (or a copy?) appeared in a private collection in the United States, and was later sold by Bonhams (London) as the work of Kucharski. Another copy was sold in 2005 in Warsaw, by auction house Sztuka, which considered the original to probably be the work of Salvatore Tonci (1756-1844), and which considered the sitter to not be Sofie Potocka, but rather Helena Apolonia Potocka, née Massalska -- in fact, the pastel or a copy was used as the cover illustration for a 2012 edition of the diary of Apolonia Helena Potocka, Pamiętniki pensjonarki. Zapiski z czasów edukacji w Paryżu (1771-1779) {Diaries of a Schoolgirl: Notes from an education in Paris.}. The proposed identification as Apolonia Helena Potocka seems odd, as the sitter does not have a strong resemblance to VLB's 1808 portrait of Apolonia Helena in the National Museum, Warsaw. Sophie Potocka lived 1766-1822. She was mistress to Jozef Anton Poniatowski (1763-1813), a nephew of the King of Poland.

"Count d’Artois," Art and Letters, v. 1:plate facing 96, Jan. 1889. This was reproduced by Olivier Blanc, L’Amour à Paris au temps de Louis XVI (Paris, 2003), as a painting by Danloux (cf. Portalis). Others believe it to be closer to the style of Duplessis.

ca. 1780-82 "Baroness Ekaterina Alexandrovna Stroganov," oil on canvas, oval, Hermitage. Lived 1769-1844. A copy of this painting. 68.5 x 55 cm, was misidentified in the 1967-68 Royal Academy Catalogue of French art, as being a VLB painting of Ekaterina’s younger sister, Elisaveta Alexandrovna Stroganov. [VLB painted Elisaveta after her marriage to Demidov.] Serge Danielit, Five Centuries of French Painting, correctly identifies the painting as a portrait by Jean Louis Voille. See also Inna Sergeyevna Nemilovova, Zagadki starych kartin (Secrets of old paintings) (Moscow 1973).

1796-97? "Princess Ecaterina (Karolina) Alexandrovna Dolgorouky, née de Litzine," Tropinin Museum in Moscow, Gazette des Beaux Arts, Jul/Aug 1967, p. 100 (b&w). Lived 1758-1842. While Nikolenko attributed this to VLB, the Tropinin Museum attributes this to Giovanni Battista Damon Ortolani, 1804 (55 x 68 cm). [Thanks to Timothy F. Boettger for letting us know the location of the painting, and the attribution given by the museum.]

"Mme Labille-Guiard," collection of Mrs. Frances Spingold, NY. Vigée LeBrun, Doubleday, 1903; Art News, April 1960, p.32 (b&w). {VLB felt that Labille Guiard had always expressed animosity towards her; thus, one may be skeptical about this attribution.}

1806 "Lady with Lyre," oil on canvas, Pushkin Museum, Moscow. Signed: Rivière. Baillio believes this may be by VLB’s brother-in-law, Auguste Louis Jean Baptiste Rivière. However, Elena Sharnova, associate professor, University of Human Sciences, Moscow, and the former curator of French Paintings in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, believes that it was painted by a Mademoiselle Riviere who exhibited in the Parisian Salons in the 1810s. Olivier Blanc had believed that the sitter resembled Laure de Bonneuil, but the owner who sold the painting to the Pushkin (in 1964) represented it as being the portrait of Josephine-Wilhelmine Budaevskaya, the wife of a Polish General in Napoleon’s service.

"Jean Baptiste Pierre Le Brun" appears in this miniature by an unidentified artist. Photo from Heinz National Portrait Gallery Library, London. VLB didn’t list or mention painting her husband, which is surprising. This miniature resembles VLB’s style, and it’s always possible that it’s after a portrait by her. VLBs husband (?-1813), whom she married January 11, 1776.

18?? "The Two Sisters," oil on canvas, oval, 30" x 24 3/8." [Bottom of image reads Sedelmeyer sale, Paris, 1907. This was held May 17th and 18th. The only VLB listed in my source from this sale was a self-portrait.] [Photo located by Bob and Martha Kelly in the Witt Library; Olivier Blanc later provided a better copy.] Information indicates that this was auctioned by Bonhams, London, in 2002, as "Circle of Jens Juel," a Danish portrait painter.

"Young woman with a directoire hat," Carnegie Museum, 10:1, Apr 1936; Art News, 34:12, 9 May 1936. Auctioned 7 January 2006 by Pook & Pook, Downington, Pennsylvania, as "after VLB."

1798 "Etienne Roussée," 91 x 71 cm, oil. Earlier believed to be Prince de Rohan-Rochefort, painted ca. 1775 by VLB. The painting is now attributed to Danloux.

{"1 Le Prince de Rochefort."} {"The supper parties at the Princesse de Rohan-Rochefort’s house were delightful." - Letter III} There’s a listing of an oil on copper, 8" x 6," sold by Sotheby’s 1/90 for $55,000. Charles-Louis-Gaspard (1765-1843), son of Charles-Armand, Prince de Rohan-Rochefort (1729-1811).

ca. 1780-90 "Portrait of a Lady," oil on canvas, 24 1/2" x 20 1/2," Dayton Art Institute. Fifty Treasures of the Dayton Art Institute, 1969. Attributed to VLB at the time of acquisition in 1959. Joseph Baillio determined this attribution was incorrect in 1982, and this was confirmed by Dr. Margaret Oppenheimer, and accepted by the museum. - (Per correspondence from Dr. Dominique H. Vasseur, Senior Curator, to C.S. Stein.)

"Countess Praskovia Nikolaevna Golovin, later Countess Maximilian Fredro," (child with a dove in her hands), oval. Private collection. Portrety Polskie Elzbiety Vigée-Lebrun, by Jerzy Mycielski & Stanislav Wasylewski, 1927, p. 150-52. [Image from Julia Slupska.] Baillio (1982), p. 113, says this portrait of a daughter of Countess Varvara Golovine is not by VLB, though it is still listed as a work by VLB in an article by Tomasz F. de Rosset, in Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 85.

ca. 1795 "Izabela Ogińska, née Lasocka," oil on doubled canvas, (66 x 56 cm). Museum of Warsaw. Iwona Danielewicz, Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun and Poles (2016), p. 139 (color). Portrety Polskie Elzbiety Vigée-Lebrun, by Jerzy Mycielski & Stanislav Wasylewski, 1927, p. 150-52, had identified this as a work by VLB, but Danielewiz makes clear that is not the case.

ca. 1792 "The Dauphin of France," oval, oil on canvas. Vigée LeBrun, p. 50 (Doubleday, 1903). Numerous versions exist. Some people claimed this painting dates from 1788, is by VLB, and represents the first Dauphin, Louis-Joseph-Xavier- François, 1781-89. However, it is now established that it dates from 1792, is by Alexander Kucharsky (1741-1819), and represents the second Dauphin. There are many variants that support this position, including at least one signed and dated by Kucharsky. See the discussion (in French) at the following website.

"A Little Boy of the Comminges Family," oval, 17" x 14 1/2", Houston Museum of Fine Arts, published in Time, 4 Aug 1952 as "A child" by VLB. Art Index somehow came up with the title "A Little Boy of the Comminges Family." Per e-mail from Jacqui Allen, Art Reference Librarian, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, to C. S. Stein, dated 22 May 1998, the painting is now attributed to Rosalie Bocquet Filleul, French, 1752-1794.

1807 "Marie Caroline, Queen of Naples," Versailles. By the Italian painter, Landini.

"Madame Rouillé d’Orfeuil," oil, oval, unlocated. Shown in Vigée LeBrun, p. 190 (Doubleday, 1903), as a self-portrait. The artist is now identified as Vestier, and the sitter is now identified as given. This is verified by Baillio, and by Anne-Marie Passez, Antoine Vestier, La Bibliothèque des arts, Wildenstein, 1989.

"Lady picking a rose," oil on canvas, unlocated. Photo from Witt Library. The painting had erroneously been identified as Mdm Dugazon, and was falsely signed "Vigée Lebrun". The artist is now identified as Vestier. This is verified by Baillio, and by Anne-Marie Passez, Antoine Vestier, La Bibliothèque des arts, Wildenstein, 1989.

1782 "Marie Thérèse Louise de Savoie-Carignan, Princess de Lamballe," oval. Published in Antiques, Nov 1967, p. 707 (b&w), as a work by VLB, it is now known as a work by Joseph Sifiède Duplessis, and is located at the Musées de la Cour d’Or Metz.

1782 "Mme Gentil de Saint-Alphonse," by the Swedish painter, Hall. Pastel, 65 x 53 cm. Image from Witt Library, where it had been misidentified as Marie Thérèse Louise de Savoie-Carignan, Princess de Lamballe, by VLB. Olivier Blanc discovered the correct identity of this painting.

"Marie Antoinette," oil on canvas, 31 1/2" x 25 1/4". Angela writes, "I do not think this is by Madame Vigée Le Brun, her head dress isn’t detailed and looks flat compared with the dress. The other copies of the "robe à paniers" do not feature drop pearl earrings."

"Marie Antoinette," and a copy, "Marie Antoinette." Angela doesn’t think these are by VLB, and thinks they are more similar to the work of Labille Guiard.

"Allegedly Marie Antoinette," oil on canvas, 29" x 24" (?). Angela doesn’t believe this is VLB’s style, and doesn’t think the sitter is Marie Antoinette.

Marie-Gabrielle Capet, chalk. This is a drawing by Vincent. It was engraved by DeMarteau in 1784.

1776-77 "Marie Antoinette," pastel, Private Collection, France. This is a work by Kucharski.

1782 "Mme Courcelles," oval. Published as "Mme. Courcelles," in Vigée LeBrun, p. 176 (Doubleday, 1903). In Frantz Funck-Brentano’s book on the Necklace Affair, he had thought it was the Princess de Lamballe. Baillio says that it is neither the Princess de Lamballe, nor a work by VLB.

"Madame M. Michelle," 24" x 19 3/4" oval, Park-Bernet Galleries, NY, 1941, Mrs. Henry Walters Art Collection. Baillio says this is not a work by VLB.

Woman at clavicord, this is a Russian portrait (c. 1802-08) of Jean-Laurent Mosnier (Paris 1743 - St. Petersburg 1808), according to Gerrit Walczak, who researches that artist.

"Elisabeth-Julie-Diane de Polignac." Lived 1785-?, daughter of Louis-Melchior-Armand, vicomte de Polignac (1717-after 1792) and Madeleine-Elizabeth de Fleury (d. 1788). She was the half-sister of Armand-Jules- François, le duc de Polignac (1745-1817). She married Sabakhin, chancellor of Russia. [Olivier Blanc thought this may have been by VLB, but then learned it was a work by Danloux.]

Countess de Polignac, oil on canvas. Image from Witt Library. By Danloux, per Olivier Blanc.

"Psyché," by Marie Victoire Lemoine, oil on canvas, 19 5/8" x 15 3/4," yellow dress & blue cloak.

"Princess Sapieha," oval, Art News, Nov 1946, p. 48. However, this doesn’t resemble our other portraits of Princess Sapieha. Angela Demutskiy has discovered this is the work of Antoine Vestier.

"Woman with pigeons," oil on canvas, 32" x 26." Photo from Witt Library. Angela Demutskiy has discovered this is a poor copy after Antoine Vestier.

A Lady, oil on canvas. The pose and the props are right on: a simple dress, a sash, the flowers evocative of the portraits of Marie Antoinette, the flowing scarf, and the famous drop earrings. However, Angela Demutskiy has discovered this is the work of Lemoine.

1815 "Lady in Napoleonic Dress," oil on canvas, Belvedere, Vienna. Signed and dated. This is by Eugenie Le Brun Tripier Le Franc, who signed as Eugenie Le Brun. Color photo by Lucia Cardellini.

Isabel Czartoryska, a Polish Noblewoman," appears in Vigée LeBrun, p. 100 (Doubleday, 1903), without a date or location. Jana Talkenberg has identified this as a painting by Maria Cosway, née Hadfield (1759-1838), in Muzeum Narodowe (Czartoryski Collection) in Kraków, Poland.

"Countess d’Albany," pastel. Louise Marie Caroline Aloyse, daughter of Gustave Adolphe, prince de Stolberg-Geldern. She married prince Charles Edward, the last of the Stuart family. She wore the title of countess d’Albany and had a liaison with Alfieri the italian poet. She left Paris in 1792 and mainly lived in Florence where she died in 1817. Other portraits of this lady by Fabre may be found in Musée Fabre of Montpellier (France). [Identification by Olivier Blanc.]

c. 1785 "François-Guillaume Ménageot," oil on canvas, 32 5/8" x 30 3/4", Versailles. Lived 1744-1816. [Image supplied by Maialen Berasategui.] Joseph Baillio determined this painting is by Marie-Victoire Lemoine, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, April 1996, p. 129.

c. 1796 "Young Woman with a Dog," oil on canvas, oval, National Museum of Art, Bucharest, Romania. Photo from Witt Library. Joseph Baillio discusses the painting in Gazette des Beaux-Arts, April 1996, pp. 13-14 (or p. 138?), identifying the artist as Marie Victoire Lemoine. The painting had been misidentified as being by VLB, and the presence of the dog led some to believe that it was VLB’s 1768-72 painting of "Mme d’Aguesseau with her dog." The painting was portrayed on a Romanian stamp in 1969, as a VLB portrait of Mme d’Aguesseau (without showing a date). However, the Neoclassical costume dates from the end of the century, so it certainly can’t be a painting from 1768-72.

1785 "? Mdm Therese Budan de Russe ?," oil on canvas, oval, 27 3/4" x 22 3/8", location unknown. Joseph Baillio determined this painting is by Marie-Victoire Lemoine, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, April 1996, p. 149.

"Madame le Sénéchal," oil on canvas, oval, location unknown, is by Marie-Victoire Lemoine, per Joseph Baillio’s article in Gazette des Beaux Arts, April 1996, p. 150.

"Young girl holding a vine," pastel, 17 3/4" x 15", location unknown. Joseph Baillio determined this painting is by Marie-Victoire Lemoine, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, April 1996, p. 152.

"Louis Henry Gabiou, Playing a Violin," oil on canvas, 54.5 x 47 cm, Snite Museum of Art, University of Notre Dame, Indiana. International Studio, May 1925, cover. Joseph Baillio determined this painting is by Marie-Victoire Lemoine, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, April 1996, p. 154. Presumably a nephew, as the artist’s sister, Marie Elisabeth Lemoine, became Mdm Gabiou.

"? Mlle Baconnière de Salverte ?," oil on canvas, 73 x 58 cm, location unknown. Previously owned by the countess of Ginestous, a close friend of the Princess de Lamballe. Published in Vigée Le Brun, her life, works and friendship, by William Henry Helm. Mme de Salverte was the wife of a fermier général fascinated by the theâtre. Mme Anne Marie Passez published a very similar portrait [*] of this sitter, but attributed both of them to Labille Guiard, instead of to VLB. She also felt that the sitter was not Mme de Salverte, but rather was the Comtesse de Clermont-Tonnerre, based on similarities to VLB’s portrait. Joseph Baillio attributes this painting to Marie-Victoire Lemoine, in Gazette des Beaux Arts, April 1996, p. 158. So questions remain about the attribution and identification of these two paintings. Born Victoire de Vaucanson, she married count Salvert, écuyer cavalcadour de la reine. She was born ca. 1753. [Biographical information by Olivier Blanc.]

"Mme Dietrich," oval, unlocated. Amélie de Berckeim, wife of M. Fritz de Dietrich. Mrs de Dietrich d’Holbach , daughter in law of baron et baronne d’Holbach. [Image and information from Olivier Blanc.] Believed painted by Marie-Victoire Lemoine.

"Self Portrait With a Lute," oil on canvas, 32" x 25", Private Collector. This is by Rose Ducreux, according to research by Olivier Blanc.

"Mlle Duthé," Musée de Peinture et de Sculpture, Grenoble. In The Sweetness of Life, p. 57, Angelica Goodden states that this is a mediocre portrait, and definitely not by VLB.

Jeanne-Marie-Ignace-Theresa Cabarrus (1773-1835), daughter of the Spanish banker, Francois Cabarrus. In 1788, she married Jean Jacques Devin, Marquis de Fontenay. They divorced, and she was imprisoned during the Terror. Her life was spared by Jean Lambert Tallien (1767-1820), who married her in 1794. She pleaded with Tallien to save the lives of many others, and became known as Madame Thermidor, after the 9th of Thermidor. Divorced in 1802, in 1807 she married her third and last husband, Victor Maurice Riquet Caraman-Chimay. The gipsy-queen of Paris; being the story of Madame Tallien by whom Robespierre fell, by R. McNair Wilson (London, Chapman & Hall Ltd. [1934]), says that she commisioned a portrait of herself by VLB in 1789 and went nearly every day to her studio at the Rue St.Honoré. [Information from Jana Talkenberg.] However, it appears that VLB only lived on Rue St.Honoré from 1768 to 1775, much too early to have painted Mdm Tallien there. She then moved to the Rue de Cléry, and in 1789 had just moved to the adjacent Rue de Gros-Chenet. For comparison, here’s a portrait by Gerard, and portrait two and three by other artists.

"Lady with a Sheet of Music," oil on canvas, 92.5 x 69.3 cm, Kurpfalzisches Museum, Heidelberg, Germany. Appears to be an adaptation after VLB's 1782 self portrait.

Gentleman, oil on canvas, oval, 23 1/2" x 18 1/2" (59.6 x 47  cm). Sold at Christie’s, London, 9 Feb 1979. Sold again as a "Circle of Vigée Le Brun" by Koller Auktionen, September 21, 2007 (Lot 03118) for $6,096.

REFERENCES

Please refer to the very extensive bibliography published in the following dissertation for the Università degli Studi di Padova: Lucia Cardellini, Elisabeth Vigée Le Brun e Le Sue Suggestioni Fiamminghe e Olandesi (S.M. Legatoria, Padova: 2000), pp. 257-272.

References not cited by Cardellini include:

Gazette des Beaux-Arts, April 1996